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    Population genomics of Bronze Age Eurasia (Allentoft et al. 2015)

    This paper is of huge importance, so I think it deserves its own thread, though it has already been reported on the news thread.

    Morten E. Allentoft et al., Population genomics of Bronze Age Eurasia, Nature, 522, 167–172 (11 June 2015)
    http://www.nature.com/nature/journal...ture14507.html

    Abstract
    The Bronze Age of Eurasia (around 3000–1000 BC) was a period of major cultural changes. However, there is debate about whether these changes resulted from the circulation of ideas or from human migrations, potentially also facilitating the spread of languages and certain phenotypic traits. We investigated this by using new, improved methods to sequence low-coverage genomes from 101 ancient humans from across Eurasia. We show that the Bronze Age was a highly dynamic period involving large-scale population migrations and replacements, responsible for shaping major parts of present-day demographic structure in both Europe and Asia. Our findings are consistent with the hypothesized spread of Indo-European languages during the Early Bronze Age. We also demonstrate that light skin pigmentation in Europeans was already present at high frequency in the Bronze Age, but not lactose tolerance, indicating a more recent onset of positive selection on lactose tolerance than previously thought.
    Allentoft2015.jpg

    By analysing our genomic data in relation to previously published ancient and modern data (Supplementary Information, section 6), we find evidence for a genetically structured Europe during the Bronze Age (Fig. 2; Extended Data Fig. 1; and Supplementary Figs 5 and 6). Populations in northern and central Europe were composed of a mixture of the earlier hunter-gatherer and Neolithic farmer groups, but received ‘Caucasian’ genetic input at the onset of the Bronze Age (Fig. 2). This coincides with the archaeologically well defined expansion of the Yamnaya culture from the Pontic-Caspian steppe into Europe (Figs 1 and 2). This admixture event resulted in the formation of peoples of the Corded Ware and related cultures, as supported by negative ‘admixture’ f3 statistics when using Yamnaya as a source population (Extended Data Table 2, Supplementary Table 12). Although European Late Neolithic and Bronze Age cultures such as Corded Ware, Bell Beakers, Unetice, and the Scandinavian cultures are genetically very similar to each other (Fig. 2), they still display a cline of genetic affinity with Yamnaya, with highest levels in Corded Ware, lowest in Hungary, and central European Bell Beakers being intermediate (Fig. 2b and Extended Data Table 1).
    The close affinity we observe between peoples of Corded Ware and Sintashta cultures (Extended Data Fig. 2a) suggests similar genetic
    sources of the two, which contrasts with previous hypotheses placing the origin of Sintastha in Asia or the Middle East. Although we
    cannot formally test whether the Sintashta derives directly from an eastward migration of Corded Ware peoples or if they share common
    ancestry with an earlier steppe population, the presence of European Neolithic farmer ancestry in both the Corded Ware and the Sintashta,
    combined with the absence of Neolithic farmer ancestry in the earlier Yamnaya, would suggest the former being more probable (Fig. 2b and
    Extended Data Table 1).
    Last edited by Jean M; 06-10-2015 at 06:37 PM.

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    The following was posted in the other thread my MfA:


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    Quote Originally Posted by Humanist View Post
    The following was posted in the other thread my MfA:

    Looks like J2 folk made their move at the cusp of the Iron age - irRus, irArm, irAltai, BR2 (1200bc).
    Last edited by parasar; 06-10-2015 at 06:44 PM.

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    Quote Originally Posted by parasar View Post
    Looks like J2 folk made their move at the cusp of the Iron age - irRus, irArm, irAltai, BR2 (1200bc).
    It really is starting to look like for sure.

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    Quote Originally Posted by Humanist View Post
    The following was posted in the other thread my MfA:

    Interesting to note that Bell Beaker and Volga (Stalingrad) are R1b.
    This is an area associated with kurgans and stelae.
    https://www.pinterest.com/gerardcorc...an-bronze-age/

    Yamnaya expansion east to Tocharian area would appear to support Victor Mair's Tarim Basin Mummies proposal.
    https://www.pinterest.com/gerardcorc...an-bronze-age/

    The high proportion of Armenian R1b might suggest a path to the Balkans.
    Last edited by Heber; 06-10-2015 at 07:42 PM.
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    Quote Originally Posted by Humanist View Post
    The following was posted in the other thread my MfA:

    What was the sample size for this (for each category)? I apologize in advance if this has already been asked and answered.
    Last edited by King; 06-11-2015 at 09:48 AM.

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    Quote Originally Posted by Gambler View Post
    What was the sample size for this (for each category)? I apologize in advance if this has already been asked and answered.
    https://drive.google.com/open?id=1Hu...yW8&authuser=0

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    Awesome work Kreft. I see that there are 5 Iron Age samples from Russia (including Altai) and that they managed to get Y-DNA from 4 of them. By chance do you know which samples from Iron Age Russia and Iron Age Altai are the J2 and J2a ones?

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    Velika Gruda X1 from Montenegro

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    irRus: J2
    irArm: J2b
    irAltai: J2a, Q1a
    baAfGo: R1a
    baKarasuk: Q1a, R1a
    baMezh: R1a, R1b
    baAndrov: R1a
    baSintashta: R1a
    baStalingradQuar: R1b
    baYam: I2a, R1b
    baArm: E1b, R1b
    baSca: I1, I1a, R1a, R1b
    baCW: R1, R1a, R1b
    baBb: R1b
    baHu: G2a, I2, I2a
    baRem: I2, I2a
    Last edited by MfA; 06-10-2015 at 06:44 PM.
    E-M84>FGC18389>FGC18413>FGC18401>FGC18422>Y99171 tMRCA 2550ybp

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