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Thread: Two OOA events

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    Two OOA events

    http://journals.plos.org/plospathoge...l.ppat.1002693

    PLoS Pathog. 2012;8(5):e1002693. doi: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1002693. Epub 2012 May 10.
    Age of the association between Helicobacter pylori and man.

    Abstract
    When modern humans left Africa ca. 60,000 years ago (60 kya), they were already infected with Helicobacter pylori, and these bacteria have subsequently diversified in parallel with their human hosts. But how long were humans infected by H. pylori prior to the out-of-Africa event? Did this co-evolution predate the emergence of modern humans, spanning the species divide? To answer these questions, we investigated the diversity of H. pylori in Africa, where both humans and H. pylori originated. Three distinct H. pylori populations are native to Africa: hpNEAfrica in Afro-Asiatic and Nilo-Saharan speakers, hpAfrica1 in Niger-Congo speakers and hpAfrica2 in South Africa. Rather than representing a sustained co-evolution over millions of years, we find that the coalescent for all H. pylori plus its closest relative H. acinonychis dates to 88-116 kya. At that time the phylogeny split into two primary super-lineages, one of which is associated with the former hunter-gatherers in southern Africa known as the San. H. acinonychis, which infects large felines, resulted from a later host jump from the San, 43-56 kya. These dating estimates, together with striking phylogenetic and quantitative human-bacterial similarities show that H. pylori is approximately as old as are anatomically modern humans. They also suggest that H. pylori may have been acquired via a single host jump from an unknown, non-human host. We also find evidence for a second Out of Africa migration in the last 52,000 years, because hpEurope is a hybrid population between hpAsia2 and hpNEAfrica, the latter of which arose in northeast Africa 36-52 kya, after the Out of Africa migrations around 60 kya.

    My question is: if we recalibrated the age of the first OOA from 60 kya to 70 kya and the second OOA from 52 ky to 62 kya, associating Y-DNA haplogroups CT, CF and D with the first OOA and E with the second OOA, would it be a good scenario?

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    Here's the paper's depiction of migration routes. I think that by making ages 10-15 ky older we would obtain a solid scenario: Attachment 5238

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    Migration into North Africa from Iberia? Theres no evidence of it but, I think it is possible.

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    Quote Originally Posted by Motzart View Post
    Migration into North Africa from Iberia? Theres no evidence of it but, I think it is possible.
    There's plenty of mtDNA evidence

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    36-52 kya is the estimated TMRCA of West African and East African H. Pylori strains. The admixture in the West Eurasian H. pylori was already differentiated East African, so it would necessarily be younger than this date. I'd say the most plausible period for the mixture is just before the Neolithic, considering the archaeological evidence (influence from Nile Valley grain collectors preceding the Natufian culture) combined with the age of the main West Eurasian E lineages (M34 + V13).

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    Quote Originally Posted by Lank View Post
    36-52 kya is the estimated TMRCA of West African and East African H. Pylori strains. The admixture in the West Eurasian H. pylori was already differentiated East African, so it would necessarily be younger than this date. I'd say the most plausible period for the mixture is just before the Neolithic, considering the archaeological evidence (influence from Nile Valley grain collectors preceding the Natufian culture) combined with the age of the main West Eurasian E lineages (M34 + V13).
    How does this fit with your hypothesis?

    Levantine cranium from Manot Cave (Israel) foreshadows the first European modern humans

    Authors: Israel Hershkovitz, Ofer Marder, Avner Ayalon, Miryam Bar-Matthews, Gal Yasur, Elisabetta Boaretto, Valentina Caracuta, Bridget Alex, Amos Frumkin, Mae Goder-Goldberger, Philipp Gunz, Ralph L. Holloway, Bruce Latimer, Ron Lavi, Alan Matthews, Viviane Slon, Daniella Bar-Yosef Mayer, Francesco Berna, Guy Bar-Oz, Reuven Yeshurun, Hila May, Mark G. Hans, Gerhard W. Weber & Omry Barzilai

    A key event in human evolution is the expansion of modern humans of African origin across Eurasia between 60 and 40 thousand years (kyr) before present (bp), replacing all other forms of hominins. Owing to the scarcity of human fossils from this period, these ancestors of all present-day non-African modern populations remain largely enigmatic. Here we describe a partial calvaria, recently discovered at Manot Cave (Western Galilee, Israel) and dated to 54.7 ± 5.5 kyr bp (arithmetic mean ± 2 standard deviations) by uranium–thorium dating, that sheds light on this crucial event. The overall shape and discrete morphological features of the Manot 1 calvaria demonstrate that this partial skull is unequivocally modern. It is similar in shape to recent African skulls as well as to European skulls from the Upper Palaeolithic period, but different from most other early anatomically modern humans in the Levant. This suggests that the Manot people could be closely related to the first modern humans who later successfully colonized Europe. Thus, the anatomical features used to support the ‘assimilation model’ in Europe might not have been inherited from European Neanderthals, but rather from earlier Levantine populations. Moreover, at present, Manot 1 is the only modern human specimen to provide evidence that during the Middle to Upper Palaeolithic interface, both modern humans and Neanderthals contemporaneously inhabited the southern Levant, close in time to the likely interbreeding event with Neanderthals.

    http://www.nature.com/nature/journal...ture14134.html

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    I don't think it affects it one way or the other. Early Eurasian modern humans might be expected to be relatively similar to Africans, in comparison to modern populations.

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    Quote Originally Posted by Lank View Post
    I don't think it affects it one way or the other. Early Eurasian modern humans might be expected to be relatively similar to Africans, in comparison to modern populations.
    Y-DNA E is linked to Basal Eurasian, and Kostenki 14 (38 kya, European Russia) had Basal Eurasian admixture.

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    Quote Originally Posted by Passa View Post
    Y-DNA E is linked to Basal Eurasian, and Kostenki 14 (38 kya, European Russia) had Basal Eurasian admixture.
    So what do you propose? Later (pre-Neolithic) Europeans evidently lack Basal Eurasian ancestry. The way I see it is that either there was a population replacement, or there's something wrong with the Kostenki genome.

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    Quote Originally Posted by Lank View Post
    So what do you propose? Later (pre-Neolithic) Europeans evidently lack Basal Eurasian ancestry. The way I see it is that either there was a population replacement, or there's something wrong with the Kostenki genome.
    Let's say population replacement. In UP Europe we just see mtDNA haplogroups R* and U2 linked to Y-DNA F and C, respectively. The Dolní Vestoniče mtDNA haplogroup is U8, and we don't know its male counterpart. U8 is the oldest U clade if I remember well, it could have been picked up by Basal Eurasians and carried to Europe.
    Last edited by Passa; 07-17-2015 at 11:15 PM.

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