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Thread: The origin of the Slavs

  1. #1511
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    https://www.familytreedna.com/public...frame=yresults

    Poland
    R-L260 (formed 4600 ybp, TMRCA 2500 ybp) - 256 samples
    R-CTS11962 (formed 4600 ybp, TMRCA 3200 ybp) - 181 samples
    Other subclades - 8 samples



    Czechia
    R-L260 (formed 4600 ybp, TMRCA 2500 ybp) - 31 samples
    R-CTS11962 (formed 4600 ybp, TMRCA 3200 ybp) - 24 samples



    Hungary
    R-L260 (formed 4600 ybp, TMRCA 2500 ybp) - 19 samples
    R-CTS11962 (formed 4600 ybp, TMRCA 3200 ybp) - 15 samples



    Ukraine
    R-L260 (formed 4600 ybp, TMRCA 2500 ybp) - 36 samples
    R-CTS11962 (formed 4600 ybp, TMRCA 3200 ybp) - 50 samples



    Germany
    R-L260 (formed 4600 ybp, TMRCA 2500 ybp) - 48 samples
    R-CTS11962 (formed 4600 ybp, TMRCA 3200 ybp) - 124 samples
    Unclustered - 1 sample



    Russia
    R-L260 (formed 4600 ybp, TMRCA 2500 ybp) - 32 samples
    R-CTS11962 (formed 4600 ybp, TMRCA 3200 ybp) - 85 samples
    Other subclades - 6 samples



    Belarus
    R-L260 (formed 4600 ybp, TMRCA 2500 ybp) - 3 samples
    R-CTS11962 (formed 4600 ybp, TMRCA 3200 ybp) - 28 samples

    Last edited by Waldemar; 03-12-2018 at 03:16 PM.

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  3. #1512
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    I've noticed that I have a new closest autosomal match on Gedmatch (40.6 - total cM, 19.2 - largest cM) and FTDNA (67 - shared cM, 15 - longest block).

    Surname distribution map of my closest match and his wife



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  5. #1513
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    http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2018/03/06/1719880115

    Population genomic analysis of elongated skulls reveals extensive female-biased immigration in Early Medieval Bavaria

    Krishna R. Veeramah, Andreas Rott, Melanie Groß, Lucy van Dorp, Saioa López, Karola Kirsanow, Christian Sell, Jens Blöcher, Daniel Wegmann, Vivian Link, Zuzana Hofmanová, Joris Peters, Bernd Trautmann, Anja Gairhos, Jochen Haberstroh, Bernd Päffgen, Garrett Hellenthal, Brigitte Haas-Gebhard, Michaela Harbeck and Joachim Burger

    PNAS 2018; published ahead of print March 12, 2018, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1719880115

    Significance

    Many modern European states trace their roots back to a period known as the Migration Period that spans from Late Antiquity to the early Middle Ages. We have conducted the first population-level analysis of people from this era, generating genomic data from 41 graves from archaeological sites in present-day Bavaria in southern Germany mostly dating to around 500 AD. While they are predominantly of northern/central European ancestry, we also find significant evidence for a nonlocal genetic provenance that is highly enriched among resident Early Medieval women, demonstrating artificial skull deformation. We infer that the most likely origin of the majority of these women was southeastern Europe, resolving a debate that has lasted for more than half a century.

    Abstract

    Modern European genetic structure demonstrates strong correlations with geography, while genetic analysis of prehistoric humans has indicated at least two major waves of immigration from outside the continent during periods of cultural change. However, population-level genome data that could shed light on the demographic processes occurring during the intervening periods have been absent. Therefore, we generated genomic data from 41 individuals dating mostly to the late 5th/early 6th century AD from present-day Bavaria in southern Germany, including 11 whole genomes (mean depth 5.56×). In addition we developed a capture array to sequence neutral regions spanning a total of 5 Mb and 486 functional polymorphic sites to high depth (mean 72×) in all individuals. Our data indicate that while men generally had ancestry that closely resembles modern northern and central Europeans, women exhibit a very high genetic heterogeneity; this includes signals of genetic ancestry ranging from western Europe to East Asia. Particularly striking are women with artificial skull deformations; the analysis of their collective genetic ancestry suggests an origin in southeastern Europe. In addition, functional variants indicate that they also differed in visible characteristics. This example of female-biased migration indicates that complex demographic processes during the Early Medieval period may have contributed in an unexpected way to shape the modern European genetic landscape. Examination of the panel of functional loci also revealed that many alleles associated with recent positive selection were already at modern-like frequencies in European populations ∼1,500 years ago.







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  7. #1514
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    https://www.ebi.ac.uk/ena/data/view/PRJEB23079

    The newcomers who arrived in the little farming villages of medieval Germany would have stood out: They had dark hair and tawny skin, spoke a different language and had remarkably tall heads.

    Now scientists who investigated the unusually shaped skulls say they provide evidence that women also migrated long distances across medieval Europe, not just men. A genetic analysis showed the women traveled from what is now Romania, Bulgaria and northern Greece at a time when the continent was being reshaped by the collapse of the Roman Empire.

    In a study published Monday by the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, researchers say the women's elongated heads — a result of binding done after birth — suggest they might have been high-class individuals.

    "These women looked extremely different to the local women, very exotic if you will," said one of the researchers, Joachim Burger, a population geneticist at the University of Mainz, Germany.

    With colleagues from Europe and the United States, Burger compared the genetic profile of almost 40 human remains unearthed from 5th and 6th century burial sites in Bavaria, along the Isar and Danube rivers.

    They expected to find the telltale signs of centuries of Roman presence in the area — soldiers from the Mediterranean leaving their genetic mark on the location population. Instead, it looked "very central or northern European — blond and fair-skinned, like modern-day Scandinavians," Burger said.

    The exception was a group with deformed skulls. Known from various cultures across the world, artificially elongated skulls may have been considered a form of beauty or denoted high status because of the time and effort required to bandage a child's head, said Burger.

    While the practice is often associated with the Huns who swept into Europe from the East during the 5th century, the genetic makeup of the women found in Bavaria showed little Asian ancestry, suggesting that either head binding had been adopted by people living in southeastern Europe or emerged there independently.

    "This is a sound study with quite interesting results," said Jean-Jacques Hublin of the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig, Germany. He had no role in the research.

    "Usually large-distance movements involve more males — explorers, soldiers, political elite, etc. — and short range movements are more common for females (spouses moving to their husband's family)," Hublin said via email.

    While it's unclear why the women — apparently without men — traveled such a long distance, the study's authors speculate that they may have represented strategic alliances between distant populations across Europe.

    "They must have come on purpose," said Burger. "It's not a single case, there are quite a few of them."

    Despite their foreign origins, the women integrated into Bavarian society, according to the researchers. They wore the same clothes as the locals and were buried with the same artifacts. Burger said further research is needed to see whether the women intermarried with the local population.
    https://www.nytimes.com/aponline/201...ng-skulls.html
    Last edited by Waldemar; 03-13-2018 at 09:03 AM.

  8. #1515
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    Last edited by Waldemar; 03-13-2018 at 09:46 AM.

  9. #1516
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    Albania Kosovo Macedonia United States of America Sweden Greece
    Quote Originally Posted by Brent.B View Post
    The bold.

    The part about cremation is an interesting one. But how will we be able to test that?

    From my limited understanding, it appears M458 most likely did not expand from Poland. If that is true, then from where did it come?

    I've heard the area around Belarus is a potential candidate, but I also wonder if L1029 was located near the balitic sea early on?
    In most cases(from what I have seen. Correct me if I am wrong), If its not Z284, its usually L1029 under M458 that you will find in Scandinavians and English/Irish. My guess is it was absorbed into the Vikings in the case of England. Also, M458 seems stronger in Bulgarians, whom share some dialectic similarity with Poland, no? If this is the case, I think its a possible indication it could in theory have spread from Poland. If so, then it would have had to be present with bronze age Lusatians. In that scenario it would mean it was absorbed by I2/Z280 into the Slavic ethnogenesis. Unless Lusatians are in fact Proto-Slavic.
    Known Ancestry: Albanian
    23andme results: 94% Balkan, 0.9% Italian, 0.8% Middle Eastern, 2.2% broadly southern European, 0.3 British & Irish, 0.3% Japanese, 0.5% unassigned
    MyOrigins2.0: 100% Southeast European
    MyAncientOrigins: 62% Farmer, 24% Hunter Gatherer, 14% Metal Age Invader
    MyHeritage: 76% Greek, 16% Balkan, 8% Italian
    WeGene: 99.5% Balkan, 0.5% unassigned
    GenePlaza: 92.7% East Mediterranean, 5.2% Southwestern European, 1.5% Ambiguous
    DNA.LAND: 95% Balkan, 5% Sardinian

  10. #1517
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    Family graves? The genetics of collective burials in early medieval southern Germany on trial

    Abstract

    Simultaneous collective burials appear quite regularly in early medieval linear cemeteries. Despite their relatively regular occurrence, they are seen as extraordinary as the interred individuals’ right to be buried in a single grave was ignored for certain reasons. Here, we present a study examining the possible familial relationship of early medieval individuals buried in this way by using aDNA analysis of mitochondrial HVR-I, Y-STRs, and autosomal miniSTRs. We can show that biological relatedness may have been an additional reason for breaking the usual burial custom besides a common cause of death, such as the Plague, which is a precondition for a simultaneous burial. Finally, with our sample set, we also see that signs of interaction between individuals such as holding hands which are often interpreted by archeologists as signs of biological or social relatedness, do not always reflect true genetic kin relationships.



    https://www.sciencedirect.com/scienc...05440318300505
    Last edited by Waldemar; 03-18-2018 at 07:57 AM.

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  12. #1518
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  14. #1519
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    Quote Originally Posted by Waldemar View Post
    Family graves? The genetics of collective burials in early medieval southern Germany on trial

    Abstract

    Simultaneous collective burials appear quite regularly in early medieval linear cemeteries. Despite their relatively regular occurrence, they are seen as extraordinary as the interred individuals’ right to be buried in a single grave was ignored for certain reasons. Here, we present a study examining the possible familial relationship of early medieval individuals buried in this way by using aDNA analysis of mitochondrial HVR-I, Y-STRs, and autosomal miniSTRs. We can show that biological relatedness may have been an additional reason for breaking the usual burial custom besides a common cause of death, such as the Plague, which is a precondition for a simultaneous burial. Finally, with our sample set, we also see that signs of interaction between individuals such as holding hands which are often interpreted by archeologists as signs of biological or social relatedness, do not always reflect true genetic kin relationships.



    https://www.sciencedirect.com/scienc...05440318300505
    R1a is considered to be a Slavic marker in this area:

    http://journals.plos.org/plosone/art...l.pone.0041885

  15. #1520
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    Quote Originally Posted by bolek View Post
    R1a is considered to be a Slavic marker in this area:

    http://journals.plos.org/plosone/art...l.pone.0041885
    6th century AD would be too early for the Slavic clades to be already incorporated into West Germanic societies, so I suspect R1a-Z284. AFAIR, the earliest Slavic-Bavarian contacts are dated to the 590s AD. Unless, Slavic clades were widespread in the West earlier than expected.

    "In these days [year was 595] Tassilo was ordained king among the Bavarians by Childepert, king of the Franks. And he presently entered with his army into the province of the Slavs, and when he had obtained the victory, he returned to his own land with very great booty."

    On a different note, what "very great booty" could have taken Tassilo with his army from the Slavs who are apparently regarded culturally backward by archaeologists? Handmade pots?
    Last edited by Waldemar; 03-19-2018 at 04:51 PM.

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