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Thread: Irish DNA Atlas, Preliminary Results

  1. #1531
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    Has anyone heard how close the Irish DNA Atlas project people are to publishing their results from testing and doing comparisons using their new samples? The new samples being 500 samples from mainland Scotland and 250 from the Scottish Western Isles and the Isle of Man.

    Kind Regards

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    Quote Originally Posted by fridurich View Post
    Has anyone heard how close the Irish DNA Atlas project people are to publishing their results from testing and doing comparisons using their new samples? The new samples being 500 samples from mainland Scotland and 250 from the Scottish Western Isles and the Isle of Man.

    Kind Regards
    Wow, they managed to get 500 from the mainland?! Very exciting.
    Paper trail ancestry to the best of my knowledge:
    English (possibly containing some Welsh ancestry) 31.25%, Eastern European and Eastern German (Galicia, Poland) 25%, Scottish 17.96%, Scotch-Irish 12.5%, French 8.2%, Native American 1.95%, and Colonial American, 3.125%, which cannot be determined with complete certainty: there is Dutch (at least 1.36%) and some English. The rest could include Spanish, Norwegian, German, and French, but these percentages would be minuscule.

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    Quote Originally Posted by sktibo View Post
    Wow, they managed to get 500 from the mainland?! Very exciting.
    Yes, it is exciting. I think the first mention of this new testing was in either the “How Celtic is Scotland” thread or the “Is Scotland More Like England or Ireland?” thread. Seems more like it was in the first one, and I may not have the threads named 100 percent correct. I think the source for this information is pretty reliable.

    Kind Regards
    Fred

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    Has anyone heard when Ed Gilbert, who was heavily involved in the Irish Dna Project, will publish the results concerning analysis of approximately 500 mainland Scotland autosomal Dna samples and 250 samples from the Western Isles of Scotland and the Isle of Man?

    I think this project was first mentioned on 9-26-2018 on around page 12 in the “How Celtic is Scotland?” (or named something like that) thread.

    I’m very interested in seeing how these new Scotland and Manx clusters compare to the 10 Irish clusters the IDA project found.

    Kind Regards
    Fred
    Last edited by fridurich; 04-22-2019 at 01:55 AM.

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  9. #1535
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    Quote Originally Posted by fridurich View Post
    Has anyone heard when Ed Gilbert, who was heavily involved in the Irish Dna Project, will publish the results concerning analysis of approximately 500 mainland Scotland autosomal Dna samples and 250 samples from the Western Isles of Scotland and the Isle of Man?

    I think this project was first mentioned on 9-26-2018 on around page 12 in the “How Celtic is Scotland?” (or named something like that) thread.

    I’m very interested in seeing how these new Scotland and Manx clusters compare to the 10 Irish clusters the IDA project found.

    Kind Regards
    Fred
    I'm sure if there is anything that Heber will post.

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    Quote Originally Posted by Jessie View Post
    I'm sure if there is anything that Heber will post.
    Thanks Jessie! I have a tendency to get impatient sometimes. Seems like it took about 5 years for the IDA project to conclude. Surely, this project shouldn’t take near that long.

    Kind Regards
    Fred

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    A study led by experts in human genetics at RCSI (Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland) and the University of Edinburgh has created the first comprehensive genomic analysis of Scotland.

    The study, published in the current edition of the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, has found strong genetic connections between the Scots and Norse Vikings, and sheds light on the Gaelic component to the Icelandic gene pool.

    Researchers investigated the DNA of more than 2,500 individuals with extended ancestry from specific regions across Great Britain and Ireland, with a specific focus on Scotland. The new data from Scotland means this is the first time the genetic map of the UK and the Republic of Ireland can be seen in its entirety, researchers say.

    The map reveals that Scotland is divided into at least six clusters of genetically similar individuals, who cluster together geographically – the Borders, the south-west, the north-east, the Hebrides, Orkney and Shetland. Some of these clusters, notably those linked with the south-west and Hebrides share particularly strong affinity for clusters of Irish ancestry.

    These Scottish clusters show remarkably similar locations to Dark Age kingdoms such as Strathclyde in the south-west, Pictland in the north-east, and Gododdin in the south-east. The results suggest that these kingdoms may have maintained regional identities that extend to the present. The modern genetic landscape of Britain and Ireland described by the researchers also reflects splits in the early languages of the Isles: Q-Celtic (Scottish, Irish and Manx Gaelic) and P-Celtic (Welsh, Cumbric, Cornish, Old Brythonic and Pictish).

    Shetland, an archipelago of approximately 100 islands, located between Norway and mainland Scotland, was found to harbour the largest proportion of Norwegian-related ancestry, a consequence of the Norse Viking migrations that began in the eighth century.

    The study compared the genomes of ancient Gaels buried in Iceland to the modern genetic diversity of Britain and Ireland. The comparison showed that these ancient settlers in Iceland shared the greatest genetic affinity with those on the western Isles of Scotland and the North-West of Ireland.

    The researchers were also able to analyse the county of Donegal in more detail than before, revealing it as the most genetically isolated region of Ireland observed to date. This isolation shows little evidence of the migrations that have impacted the rest of Ulster.

    The study, ‘The Genetic Landscape of Scotland and the Isles’, was completed in collaboration with the University of Edinburgh, University of Bristol and the Genealogical Society of Ireland. Funding was provided by Science Foundation Ireland, the Scottish Funding Council, Wellcome Trust and the Medical Research Council UK.

    Scottish DNA map

    Commenting on the study, Professor of Human Genetics at the RCSI School of Pharmacy and Bimolecular Sciences and Deputy Director of FutureNeuro, the SFI Research Centre for Chronic and Rare Neurological Diseases, Gianpiero Cavalleri, said: “The discoveries made in this study illustrate from the perspective of DNA, the shared history of Britain, Ireland and other European regions. People are well aware of historical migrations between Scotland and Ireland but seeing this history come alive in the DNA is nonetheless remarkable.”

    Professor Jim Wilson, from the University of Edinburgh’s Usher Institute and MRC Human Genetics Unit, said: “It is remarkable how long the shadows of Scotland’s Dark Age kingdoms are, given the massive increase in movement from the industrial revolution to the modern era. We believe this is largely due to the majority of people marrying locally and preserving their genetic identity.”

    Dr Edmund Gilbert, the paper’s lead author from RCSI, said: “This work is important not only from the historical perspective, but also for helping understand the role of genetic variation in human disease. Understanding the fine scale genetic structure of a population helps researchers better separate disease-causing genetic variation from that which occurs naturally in the British and Irish populations, but has little or no impact on disease risk.”

    The collaboration between RCSI scientists, their international network of experts, and the Irish Genealogical Society, provides an exciting example of how citizens can contribute to important scientific discoveries. The Irish DNA Atlas is an ongoing study. If you have ancestry from a specific part of Ireland and you are interested in participating, please contact Séamus O’Reilly from the Genealogical Association of Ireland via [email protected]

    https://www.rcsi.com/dublin/news-and...h-genetic-maps
    Gerard Corcoran
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    Anyone have a link to the study: ‘The Genetic Landscape of Scotland and the Isles’

    The bit about Donegal makes alot of sense given the linguistic history of the county over the last 200 years.
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    I can't find this on the PNAS site at all. Makes me wonder if it will be published tomorrow in their next issue (well online published?).
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    https://www.pnas.org/content/pnas/ea...61116.full.pdf

    The genetic landscape of Scotland and the Isles
    Edmund Gilberta,b, Seamus O’Reillyc, Michael Merriganc, Darren McGettiganc, Veronique Vitartd, Peter K. Joshie, David W. Clarke, Harry Campbelle, Caroline Haywardd, Susan M. Ringf,g, Jean Goldingh, Stephanie Goodfellowi, Pau Navarrod, Shona M. Kerrd, Carmen Amadord, Archie Campbellj, Chris S. Haleyd,k, David J. Porteousj, Gianpiero L. Cavalleria,b,1, and James F. Wilsond,e,1,2
    aSchool of Pharmacy and Molecular and Cellular Therapeutics, Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, Dublin D02 YN77, Ireland; bFutureNeuro Research Centre, Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, Dublin D02 YN77, Ireland; cGenealogical Society of Ireland, Dún Laoghaire, Co. Dublin A96 AD76, Ireland; dMedical Research Council Human Genetics Unit, Institute of Genetics and Molecular Medicine, University of Edinburgh, Western General Hospital, Edinburgh EH4 2XU, Scotland; eCentre for Global Health Research, Usher Institute, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH8 9AG, Scotland; fBristol Bioresource Laboratories, Population Health Sciences, Bristol Medical School, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 2BN, United Kingdom; gMedical Research Council Integrative Epidemiology Unit at the University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 2BN, United Kingdom; hCentre for Academic Child Health, Population Health Sciences, Bristol Medical School, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1NU, United Kingdom; iPrivate address, Isle of Man IM7 2EA, Isle of Man; jCentre for Genomic and Experimental Medicine, Institute of Genetics and Molecular Medicine, University of Edinburgh, Western General Hospital, Edinburgh EH4 2XU, Scotland; and kThe Roslin Institute and Royal (Dick) School of Veterinary Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH25 9RG, Scotland
    Edited by Chris Tyler-Smith, The Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Oxford, United Kingdom, and accepted by Editorial Board Member Mary-Claire King July 29, 2019 (received for review March 20, 2019)


    Britain and Ireland are known to show population genetic structure; however, large swathes of Scotland, in particular, have yet to be described. Delineating the structure and ancestry of these popula- tions will allow variant discovery efforts to focus efficiently on areas not represented in existing cohorts. Thus, we assembled genotype data for 2,554 individuals from across the entire archipelago with geographically restricted ancestry, and performed population struc- ture analyses and comparisons to ancient DNA. Extensive geographic structuring is revealed, from broad scales such as a NE to SW divide in mainland Scotland, through to the finest scale observed to date: across 3 km in the Northern Isles. Many genetic boundaries are consistent with Dark Age kingdoms of Gaels, Picts, Britons, and Norse. Populations in the Hebrides, the Highlands, Argyll, Donegal, and the Isle of Man show characteristics of isolation. We document a pole of Norwegian ancestry in the north of the archipelago (reaching 23 to 28% in Shetland) which complements previously described poles of Germanic ancestry in the east, and “Celtic” to the west. This modern genetic structure suggests a northwestern British or Irish source population for the ancient Gaels that contributed to the founding of Iceland. As rarer variants, often with larger effect sizes, become the focus of complex trait genetics, more diverse rural co- horts may be required to optimize discoveries in British and Irish populations and their considerable global diaspora.
    Gerard Corcoran
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