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Thread: 4500-year-old Ethiopian - Y-DNA E1b1, mtDNA L3, and considerable Eurasian admixture

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    4500-year-old Ethiopian - Y-DNA E1b1, mtDNA L3, and considerable Eurasian admixture

    http://www.sciencemag.org/content/ea...d2879.abstract

    Characterizing genetic diversity in Africa is a crucial step for most analyses reconstructing the evolutionary history of anatomically modern humans. However, historic migrations from Eurasia into Africa have affected many contemporary populations, confounding inferences. Here, we present a 12.5x coverage ancient genome of an Ethiopian male (‘Mota’) who lived approximately 4,500 years ago. We use this genome to demonstrate that the Eurasian backflow into Africa came from a population closely related to Early Neolithic farmers, who had colonized Europe 4,000 years earlier. The extent of this backflow was much greater than previously reported, reaching all the way to Central, West and Southern Africa, affecting even populations such as Yoruba and Mbuti, previously thought to be relatively unadmixed, who harbor 6-7% Eurasian ancestry.

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    Ayyubid Dynasty Zand Dynasty Ararat Republic Mahabad Republic Kurdistan Rojavaya Kurdistane


    E-M84>FGC18389>FGC18413>FGC18401>FGC18422>Y99171 tMRCA 2550ybp

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    Ayyubid Dynasty Zand Dynasty Ararat Republic Mahabad Republic Kurdistan Rojavaya Kurdistane
    Principal component analysis shows that Ari and Sandawe are the
    closest contemporary populations to Mota




    Mota was placed close to the Ethiopian samples (Fig. 1, A), in between the clusters formed by the
    Ari and the Sandawe (but very close to an Ari individual that stands out from the rest of that
    group). The Ari can be split into two castes, Ari Cultivator and Ari Blacksmith, which share a
    common origin within the last 4,500 years (62). Since data on a larger number of SNPs are
    available for Ethiopian populations (4), we repeated the PCA using this higher quality dataset
    (processed as in SM S6), which gave us 484,161 usable SNPs that could be called in Mota. Once
    again, Mota fell in between the Ari and the Sandawe cluster (Fig. S5).



    S9. f4 ratio analysis shows that Mota has no component of West
    Eurasian admixture


    The absence of a West Eurasian component in Mota supports the dating of the
    backflow into Africa
    , which, at ~3.5kya, is younger than our ancient genome (dated to 4.5 kya)

    Given that Mota predates the backflow, it potentially provides a better unadmixed African
    reference than contemporary Yoruba.
    Thus, we recomputed the extent of the West Eurasian
    component in contemporary African populations using Mota, λMota,Druze, instead of Yoruba in our f4
    ratio. By using this better reference, we estimated West Eurasian admixture to be significantly
    larger than previously estimated, with an additional 6-9% of the genome of contemporary African
    populations being of Eurasian origin
    (Fig. S6, and Table S5). Importantly, this analysis shows that
    the West Eurasian component can be found also in West Africa (Fig. S6), albeit at lower levels
    than in Eastern Africa. Importantly, a sizeable West Eurasian component is also found in the
    Yoruba and Mbuti, which are often used a representative of an unadmixed African population.



    S10. Admixture f3 statistics show that the West Eurasian component
    originated from a population similar to the early Neolithic farmers






    S11. D statistics and f4 ratios show that Mota has no discernible
    Neanderthal component, as opposed to modern-day Africans.
    Last edited by MfA; 10-08-2015 at 07:34 PM.
    E-M84>FGC18389>FGC18413>FGC18401>FGC18422>Y99171 tMRCA 2550ybp

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    E1b1 in Africa coming from Near Eastern Neolithic farmers (West Eurasians)?

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    Quote Originally Posted by J Man View Post
    E1b1 in Africa coming from Near Eastern Neolithic farmers (West Eurasians)?
    No because Mota does not have West Eurasian (or Neanderthal or Denisovan) admixture. Modern East Africans more apparently do, but the haplogroup seems native in light of this.
    Last edited by Shaikorth; 10-08-2015 at 08:03 PM.

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    His Y-DNA was probably E-M329, a 30-40 ky old lineage indigenous to the Horn of Africa.

    The authors date the Eurasian admixture at less than 4500 years ago, but I think that this is fairly unbelievable, the first reason being that there are not demonstrably recent lineages shared between all Sub-Saharan Africans, except obviously haplogroup E.

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    Very, very intriguing results! This goes to show, yet again, that without ancient DNA we will only have a very limited understanding of human history. Now the question is, how do we make sense of the widespread, apparently recent Eurasian admixture in SSA outside East Africa?

    In light of Mota's autosomal similarity with Omotics, it seems likely that his E1b1 lineage will belong to E-M329, a distant (40 ky old) relative of West-Central African E-M2 that is highly frequent in modern Omotic populations.

    Oh, and my dad belongs to mtDNA L3x2a, like Mota.

    Quote Originally Posted by Passa View Post
    The authors date the Eurasian admixture at less than 4500 years ago, but I think that this is fairly unbelievable, the first reason being that there are not demonstrably recent lineages shared between all Sub-Saharan Africans, except obviously haplogroup E.
    Yeah, I thought so too. Within East Africa it's not too surprising, but it's really difficult to make sense of the more widespread Eurasian signal.

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    I wonder if any of this has anything to do with R1b-V88, despite this particular guy not carrying that signature. I recall the recent analysis on the split between the St Maarten V88 and Sardinians was around 6500 BC. R1b-V88 has also been found in Sardinia, as well as an Iberian farmer carrying a SNP also in the same branch. The timeline fits well with the Neolithic wet Saharan period too.
    Last edited by ADW_1981; 10-08-2015 at 08:21 PM.
    YDNA: R1b-Z220 (A7066+) (1800's Stepney, London(Bethnal Green), UK George Wood b. 1782
    maternal-grandfather YDNA: prob. I1 Gurr, George 1843, Feversham, Kent, England.
    maternal-grandmother YDNA: ? Beech, John Richard b. 1780, Lewes, England
    maternal-ggrandfather YDNA R1b-U106 Thomas, Edward b 1854, Sittingbourne, Kent
    paternal-ggf YDNA: R1b-L48. Gould, John Somerset England 1800s.
    paternal-ggf YDNA: R1b-L48. Scott, William Hamilton mdka Ireland(?) < 1800s

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    The table of Eurasian admixture estimates using Yoruba and Mota as the reference. Note how admixture levels only decrease in some Ethiopian populations (Wolayta, Afar, Somali, Oromo, Tigray, Amhara, Jews) using Mota as a reference instead of Yoruba. In all other African populations, Eurasian admixture levels rise using Mota.




    I think ancient DNA from other parts of Africa is needed to really make sense of these results, although it's great that we finally have our first sample. Exciting times ahead!
    Last edited by Lank; 10-08-2015 at 08:31 PM.

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    Quote Originally Posted by Lank View Post
    The table of Eurasian admixture estimates using Yoruba and Mota as the reference. Note how admixture levels only decrease in some Ethiopian populations (Wolayta, Afar, Somali, Oromo, Tigray, Amhara, Jews) using Mota as a reference instead of Yoruba. In all other African populations, Eurasian admixture levels rise using Mota, rather significantly in some cases.

    Yeah, would have been nice to see Ju'hoan reference and Mbuti reference tests for comparison since they are more distant from Eurasians than Yoruba.

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