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Thread: E-M81 found in three Medieval Muslim graves from Nīmes

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    E-M81 found in three Medieval Muslim graves from Nīmes

    The rapid Arab-Islamic conquest during the early Middle Ages led to major political and cultural changes in the Mediterranean world. Although the early medieval Muslim presence in the Iberian Peninsula is now well documented, based in the evaluation of archeological and historical sources, the Muslim expansion in the area north of the Pyrenees has only been documented so far through textual sources or rare archaeological data. Our study provides the first archaeo-anthropological testimony of the Muslim establishment in South of France through the multidisciplinary analysis of three graves excavated at Nimes. First, we argue in favor of burials that followed Islamic rites and then note the presence of a community practicing Muslim traditions in Nimes. Second, the radiometric dates obtained from all three human skeletons (between the 7th and the 9th centuries AD) echo historical sources documenting an early Muslim presence in southern Gaul (i.e., the first half of 8th century AD). Finally, palaeogenomic analyses conducted on the human remains provide arguments in favor of a North African ancestry of the three individuals, at least considering the paternal lineages. Given all of these data, we propose that the skeletons from the Nimes burials belonged to Berbers integrated into the Umayyad army during the Arab expansion in North Africa. Our discovery not only discusses the first anthropological and genetic data concerning the Muslim occupation of the Visigothic territory of Septimania but also highlights the complexity of the relationship between the two communities during this period.

    [...]

    Paleogenetic and palaeogenomic analyses were conducted on the three Nimes individuals to better understand their bio-geographical origin. To date, only one publication has described the mitochondrial lineage of medieval human remains originating from archeological sites in al-Andalus [11]. These samples date from the 12th-13th centuries AD and, as such, provide a snapshot of the local population gene pool several centuries after the establishment of Muslim domination over the Iberian Peninsula. Thus, the genetic analysis of the Nimes human remains provided a unique opportunity to identify the genetic lineage carried by the individuals associated with the initial part of the Muslim conquest in Western Europe. Using a specific capture of mitochondrial genomes and more than 450 Y chromosome SNPs (Y-SNPs; see S2 File for analyses details), we managed to characterize the complete mitogenomes from all three individuals as well as partial Y-SNPs profiles (S3 Fig, and S3 Table). These results were completely consistent with the classical analyses initially conducted on the human remains (mtDNA and Y-chromosome SNPs analyses, and sequencing of HVR-1; S4 Table) and identified three distinct mtDNA haplotypes: L1c3a for SP7080, which is typically found in African populations; K1a4a for SP7089 and H1 for SP9262, which are more widely distributed across different regions in Europe and Asia but also occur in Africa (Fig 4). The current distribution of these mitochondrial haplotypes is presented as supporting information (S4 Fig). Even if the capture and enrichment of Y-SNPs was less effective, they indicated the presence of the same typical North African haplotype E1b1b1b-M81 [12, 44] in all three males’ DNA samples (S3 Table). It is worth noting that the E-M81 lineage is particularly well-represented among the North African Berber communities, with frequencies up to 70% [45–46] (Fig 4). The significant presence of this haplogroup outside North Africa—i.e., in extant populations of Iberia, Italy and Sicily (S4 Fig)—relates directly to the long-term Arab rule in these regions [46]. If the paternal lineage E-M81 and the maternal lineage L1c3 characterized implies with a high degree of probability a North African origin for all Nimes individuals, we have to note that the large distribution of mtDNA lineages H1 and K (both in North Africa and Europe) do not permit to drive any clear conclusion concerning individuals' maternal ancestry. Indeed, the determination of these maternal lineages on Nimes burials may be both the result of a direct North African maternal origin and the result of admixture between migrating Muslims and local European women. If the low discriminatory power of mtDNA does not permit us to decide between both hypotheses, genome-wide data may permit to precise individuals' ancestries in the next future. Nevertheless, if admixture between Muslims and European women is well established for later al-Andalus periods (genetically established for sites in Andalusia dating to the 12th-13th centuries; [11]), such admixture had not been raised so far for the very first Muslim groups arriving in Europe. If admixture with local women was confirmed concerning Nimes individuals, these data would constitute the most ancient evidence of admixture in the al-Andalus context.

    Source: Gleize et al. 2016

    Too bad they didn't get autosomal DNA out of these samples, a more thorough analysis of the specific branches under M81 would've been quite helpful as well. IMO this certainly suggests that the Muslim conquests could account in part for the presence of E-M81 in the Iberian Peninsula, France and Southern Italy. However, it's equally plausible that much of the E-M81 found in the aforementioned areas made its way to Western Europe with the Romans and Carthaginians.
    Last edited by Agamemnon; 02-24-2016 at 08:56 PM.
    מכורותיך ומולדותיך מארץ הכנעני אביך האמורי ואמך חתית
    יחזקאל פרק טז ג-


    ᾽Άλλο δέ τοι ἐρέω, σὺ δ᾽ ἐνὶ φρεσὶ βάλλεο σῇσιν:
    κρύβδην, μηδ᾽ ἀναφανδά, φίλην ἐς πατρίδα γαῖαν
    νῆα κατισχέμεναι: ἐπεὶ οὐκέτι πιστὰ γυναιξίν.


    -Αγαμέμνων; H Οδύσσεια, Ραψωδία λ

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    How common is mtdna K1a and H in the Maghreb?

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    Quote Originally Posted by drobbah View Post
    How common is mtdna K1a and H in the Maghreb?
    K1a4a doesn't seem particularly common in North Africa nowadays, in fact that counts for mtDNA haplogroup K as a whole. Haplogroup H1 should be far more common though, H was found in several Ibero-Maurusian samples from Taforalt (Morocco) IIRC.
    מכורותיך ומולדותיך מארץ הכנעני אביך האמורי ואמך חתית
    יחזקאל פרק טז ג-


    ᾽Άλλο δέ τοι ἐρέω, σὺ δ᾽ ἐνὶ φρεσὶ βάλλεο σῇσιν:
    κρύβδην, μηδ᾽ ἀναφανδά, φίλην ἐς πατρίδα γαῖαν
    νῆα κατισχέμεναι: ἐπεὶ οὐκέτι πιστὰ γυναιξίν.


    -Αγαμέμνων; H Οδύσσεια, Ραψωδία λ

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    After Queen Kahina's redition , pagan Berbers largely and quickly converted to Islam which merged into their tribal society somewhat. Christian Berbers of coastal Algeria & Tunisia remained Christian for a longer period untill the Almohade uprising ( some ofTunisia Christians notably migranted to Sicily In the 12th century).

    Tariq Ibn Zyad who made the conquest of Iberia for Ummeyads was definitely a Berber/Amazigh from Tlemcen ( but I heard Chaoui from the Aures too) , he recruted his soldiers amongst ex-Queen Kahina loyal tribes of Algeria and among the Ghomaras of North Morocco (ancestors of the Riffians).
    Last edited by Odyss; 02-24-2016 at 10:32 PM.

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    Quote Originally Posted by Odyss View Post
    After Queen Kahina's redition , pagan Berbers largely and quickly converted to Islam which suited their tribal society pretty well. Christian Berbers of coastal Algeria & Tunisia remained Christian for a longer period untill the Almohade uprising ( some ofTunisia Christians notably migranted to Sicily In the 12th century).

    Tariq Ibn Zyad who made the conquestof Ibetia was defnietely a Berber/Amazigh from Tlemcen ( but I heard Chaoui from the Aures as well) , he recruted his soldiers amongst ex-Queen Kahina loyal tribes of Algeria and among the Ghomaras of North Morocco (ancestors of the Riffians).
    That's also what I heard.
    מכורותיך ומולדותיך מארץ הכנעני אביך האמורי ואמך חתית
    יחזקאל פרק טז ג-


    ᾽Άλλο δέ τοι ἐρέω, σὺ δ᾽ ἐνὶ φρεσὶ βάλλεο σῇσιν:
    κρύβδην, μηδ᾽ ἀναφανδά, φίλην ἐς πατρίδα γαῖαν
    νῆα κατισχέμεναι: ἐπεὶ οὐκέτι πιστὰ γυναιξίν.


    -Αγαμέμνων; H Οδύσσεια, Ραψωδία λ

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    Couldn't have been civilians, the Ummayads weren't there long enough to actually create civilian Muslim life north of the Pyranees. Probably soldiers in the Umayyad army who were KIA and buried near their place of death.

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    i talled you guys that e- m81 was big part in the wrstern conquest the leaders and brain were j1 but they needed the arm of e-81 berbers.
    by the way i think the presence of
    E-m81 in cantabaria is much older iron age probably.
    regards
    and thanks for the link
    adam

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    Interesting article. We can observe the high frequency of mtDNA H1 in Northwestern Africa. Mitochondrial DNA haplogroup H structure in North Africa - "Like the Iberian Peninsula, the dominant mtDNA haplogroup H subgroups in North Africa are H1 (42%) " http://bmcgenet.biomedcentral.com/ar...1471-2156-10-8
    E1b1b1b - M81 formed 14200 ybp, TMRCA 2100 ybp
    http://www.yfull.com/tree/E-M81/
    A very big growth in 2000 years only, so a very fast expansion.
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    Quote Originally Posted by RCO View Post
    Interesting article. We can observe the high frequency of mtDNA H1 in Northwestern Africa. Mitochondrial DNA haplogroup H structure in North Africa - "Like the Iberian Peninsula, the dominant mtDNA haplogroup H subgroups in North Africa are H1 (42%) " http://bmcgenet.biomedcentral.com/ar...1471-2156-10-8
    E1b1b1b - M81 formed 14200 ybp, TMRCA 2100 ybp
    http://www.yfull.com/tree/E-M81/
    A very big growth in 2000 years only, so a very fast expansion.
    Indeed, and there's much to bet that E-M81's emergence correlates with the breakup of Proto-Berber around the same time.
    מכורותיך ומולדותיך מארץ הכנעני אביך האמורי ואמך חתית
    יחזקאל פרק טז ג-


    ᾽Άλλο δέ τοι ἐρέω, σὺ δ᾽ ἐνὶ φρεσὶ βάλλεο σῇσιν:
    κρύβδην, μηδ᾽ ἀναφανδά, φίλην ἐς πατρίδα γαῖαν
    νῆα κατισχέμεναι: ἐπεὶ οὐκέτι πιστὰ γυναιξίν.


    -Αγαμέμνων; H Οδύσσεια, Ραψωδία λ

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    Quote Originally Posted by Agamemnon View Post
    Source:

    Too bad they didn't get autosomal DNA out of these samples, a more thorough analysis of the specific branches under M81 would've been quite helpful as well. IMO this certainly suggests that the Muslim conquests could account in part for the presence of E-M81 in the Iberian Peninsula, France and Southern Italy. However, it's equally plausible that much of the E-M81 found in the aforementioned areas made its way to Western Europe with the Romans and Carthaginians.
    I only briefly skimmed the summary, but doesn't it suggest the rites as being Muslim? In other words, these weren't local but foreign men..at least within a few generations. add: I suppose could be local conversions but I think that's a less likely scenario.
    YDNA: R1b-BY50830 Stepney, London, UK George Wood b. 1782 English <-> Bavarian cluster
    m gf YDNA: ?? Gurr, James ~1740, Smarden, Kent, England.
    m gm YDNA: R1b-P311+ Beech, John Richard b. 1780, Lewes, England
    m ggf YDNA R1b-U106 Thomas, Edward b 1854, Sittingbourne, Kent
    p ggf YDNA: R1b-Z17901. Gould, John Somerset England 1800s.
    p ggf YDNA: R1b-L48. Scott, William Hamilton Ireland(?) 1800s

    other:
    Turner: R-U152
    Welch: early 1800s E-M84 Kent, England.

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