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Thread: Athanasiadis et al. 2016 - Genetic History of Denmark

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    Athanasiadis et al. 2016 - Genetic History of Denmark

    Abstract:

    Athanasiadis et al., Nationwide genomic study in Denmark reveals remarkable population homogeneity, ESHG EMPAG 2016 Presentation Abstract, P18.091C

    Abstract: Denmark’s genetic history has never been studied in detail. In this work, we analysed genetic and anthropometrical data from ~800 Danish students as part of an outreach activity promoting genomic literacy in secondary education. DNA analysis revealed remarkable homogeneity of the Danish population after discounting contributions from recent immigration. This homogeneity was reflected in PCA and AMOVA, but also in more sophisticated LD-based methods for estimating admixture. Notwithstanding Denmark’s homogeneity, we observed a clear signal of Polish admixture in the East of the country, coinciding with historical Polish settlements in the region before the Middle Ages. In addition, Denmark has a substantially smaller effective population size compared to Sweden and Norway, possibly reflecting further lack of strong population structure. None of these three Scandinavian countries seems to have suffered a depression due to the Black Death in the Middle Ages. Finally, we used the students’ genetic data to predict their adult height after training a novel prediction algorithm on public summary statistics from large GWAS. We validated our prediction using the students’ self-reported height and found that we could predict height with a remarkable ~64% accuracy.

    http://www.abstractsonline.com/Plan/ViewAb...14-ddac3db6fc2a

    ==============================

    What ??? Did they write?:

    "a clear signal of Polish admixture in the East of the country, coinciding with historical Polish settlements in the region before the Middle Ages"

    Does "before the Middle Ages" mean "during the Viking Age"?

    If so, then maybe it has something to do with this:

    "Denmark - kingdom created by Danish king and Polish mercenaries?":

    http://historum.com/war-military-history/5...ercenaries.html

    "Harold Bluetooth’s Vikings were Polish mercenaries":

    http://www.au.dk/en/about/news/single/arti...sh-mercenaries/

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    Indeed in Danish chronology before the Middle Ages = before year 1050 AD:

    Tidlig middelalder (ca. 1050-1200)
    Hřjmiddelalder (1200-1400)
    Senmiddelalder (1400-1536)

    https://da.wikipedia.org/wiki/Middelalderen

    Probably that was in times of this Polish princess who became the queen of Denmark:

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Świętosława

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sigrid_the_Haughty

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    Wife of Harold Bluetooth (mother of Svein Forkbeard) was Slavic (Tofa, daughter of duke Mstivoy of the Obotrites), and later wife of Svein Forkbeard and mother of Canute the Great was also Slavic (Swietoslava, daughter of Mieszko I of Poland).

    This means, that Canute the Great was - in terms of autosomal DNA - more Slavic than Germanic.

    So no surprise, that German chronicler Thietmar of Merseburg in Book VII of his chronicle, described Canute the Great as - quote - "lizard's brood" and his father - Svein Forkbeard - as "the persecutor". From "The Chronicle of Thietmar, bishop of Merseburg":

    Link: The Chronicle of Thietmar bishop of Merseburg (translated by R. T. Prinke, 2000)

    "(...) Because nobody is able to comprehend either the curiosities of that northern land [Denmark], which are unfolded in their prodigious form by nature herself, or the cruel deeds of its people, I will omit them and will only devote a few words to that lizard's brood, that is to the sons of the said Svein, the persecutor. They were born to him by a daughter of duke Mieszko [of Poland] and sister of his son and successor Boleslaw [of Poland]. (...)"

    Though perhaps Thietmar regarded native Danes (those without Slavic blood) as "lizard's brood" too.
    Last edited by Tomenable; 05-05-2016 at 07:18 PM.

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    Poland and Denmark were historically good allies:

    "Diplomatic Relations between Poland and Denmark":

    http://www.kopenhaga.msz.gov.pl/en/b...printMode=true

    The first records of Polish-Danish relations date back to the early years of the first Polish ruling dynasty, the Piast dynasty. In 996, the first Polish king, Mieszko I, gave his daughter Świętosława in marriage to the Danish King Svend Forkbeard. This move was most probably a part of the Polish king's plan to strengthen his power. Around 1129/1130, the two countries cooperated in arranging a common expedition to the island of Wolin in what is now Northwestern Poland. This alliance, however, did not last for long. Another instance of Polish-Danish rapprochement took place in the 14th century when the Danish King Erik Menved concluded an alliance with the Polish king Władysław the Elbow-high, which was directed against the rising power of the German Margraviate of Brandenburg. Władysław’s son Casimir the Great twice invited the Danish King Valdemar Atterdag to his court in Kraków in the middle of the 14th century. During one of his stays, the Danish King participated in a banquet hosted by Mikołaj Wierzynek – whose restaurant carrying his name still exists today in Kraków’s Main Square. This event was made famous by Polish chronicler Jan Długosz’ depiction of the event.

    A very strong determining factor behind the foreign policies of the two kingdoms was the German expansion – by the Hanseatic League and the Teutonic Order – in the north and in the east. The Polish-Lithuanian Union and the Danish-Swedish-Norwegian Kalmar Union, which were both established in the late 14th century, were motivated by a desire to counteract the widespread German influence. In this context, mention should be made of Erik of Pomerania from the House of Griffins, which was a dynasty ruling the Duchy of Pomerania. Erik was adopted by the Danish Queen Margaret I and thanks to her efforts was crowned the king of the three united Nordic countries in 1397.

    The second part of the 16th century marked the beginning of a long period of fighting between the countries around the Baltic Sea to secure themselves the hegemony of the Baltic Region. What the Polish-Danish relations is concerned, this turbulent period was characterized by a series of short-lived alliances, most often directed against Sweden. The most famous episode of the Polish-Danish relationship in this period is undoubtedly the campaign of a corps of Polish soldiers under the leadership of Hetman Stefan Czarniecki. Czarniecki's troops came to the rescue of their Danish ally during the Second Northern War (1655-1660). The Danish King Frederik III had declared war against Sweden in 1657 but, much to his surprise, the Swedish troops soon defeated the Danish army. In 1658, Stefan Czarniecki and his squad of 6.000 soldiers came to the rescue of Denmark. The Polish troops especially distinguished themselves in the liberation of Als and Koldinghus – the former seat of the Danish kings. These events were vividly depicted by the Polish chronicler and nobleman Jan Chryzostom Pasek, who himself took part in the expedition.

    In the following decades, the Polish-Danish relations gradually lost their importance (...)

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    Strontium isotopes from teeth of Harold Bluetooth's mercenaries show that they came from Poland.

    Some of them - 6 out of 32 - even came from Southern Poland, i.e. from the region around Cracow.

    The main garrisons of the Polish army as of 1000 AD were these (according to Gallus Anonymus):

    Poznań - 1300 loricati + 4000 clipeati + 200 loricati given to Otto III (on 11.03.1000)
    Gniezno - 1500 loricati + 5000 clipeati
    Włocławek - 800 loricati + 2000 clipeati + 100 loricati given to Otto III (on 11.03.1000)
    Giecz - 300 loricati + 2000 clipeati

    Total for these 4 locations - 17,200 warriors (14 units x 300 loricati & 13 units x 1000 clipeati).

    Of course these are just most important garrisons, and there could exist also many other garrisons.

    Zululand under Shaka in 1879 AD had ca. 750,000 inhabitants and reportedly at least 37,000 warriors.

    Poland in 1000 AD had at least 1,250,000 inhabitants so could theoretically mobilize more warriors.

    Loricati = heavy horsemen / heavy infantry
    Clipeati = light infantry troops / light cavalry

    ==============

    What I'm saying is that Bluetooth's Polish mercenaries probably originated from that area.

    Likely from Włocławek which is in Cuiavia at the Vistula River, with easy access to Gdańsk:

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Włocławek

    So they sailed down the Vistula River up to Gdańsk (the main Polish port) and to Denmark.

    Polish borders in 1000 AD, compared to main centers of the Polish army per Gallus Anonymus:

    Poland controlled all of Pomerania between the Oder and the Vistula River since around 970 AD:



    Map taken from the book "Archaeology of Early Medieval Poland" by Andrzej Buko (link):

    http://brego-weard.com/lib/ns/The_Ar...and_Discov.pdf
    Last edited by Tomenable; 05-08-2016 at 07:12 PM.

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    Piotr Włostowic (c. 1080 – 1153), also known as Peter Wlast or Włost) was a Polish noble, castellan of Wrocław, and a ruler (możnowładca) of part of Silesia. From 1117 he was voivode (palatyn) of the king of Poland, Bolesław III Wrymouth.

    Kit #199575 (Dunin-Wasowicz, Poland) - R-YP593 (Dunin Clan DNA Project)

    The Dunin-Wasowicz family (Labedz coat of arms)
    Stowarzyszenie Członkow Rodu Duninow herbu Labedz
    Duninowie

    Tomb of Piotr Wlostowic (destroyed by Lutherans in 1529):


    Annales seu cronicae incliti Regni Poloniae about Piotr Wlostowic' funeral:
    Pogrzeb miał wspaniały z udziałem wielkiej liczby Polaków, którzy uczciwszy go na uroczystościach żałobnych, okazali, jak bardzo kochali go za życia. Do dnia dzisiejszego imię komesa Piotra ze Skrzynna cieszy się u Polaków rozgłosem i sławą. Jego żona Maria, która zmarła później, została pochowana w tym samym grobowcu co Piotr, by zająć miejsce obok prochów małżonka.

    Dwuwiersz wypisany na grobowcu świadczy, że pogrzebano tam oboje. Oto on:
    „Tu Piotra z wierną żoną Marią w grób złożono Z woli ojca Wilhelma wspaniały marmur położono".

    Do tej pory istnieje w Polsce wiele kościołów murowanych, które — jak podają — zostały przez niego wzniesione.
    Source

    https://suw.biblos.pk.edu.pl/resourc...iumDawnego.pdf

    http://wratislavia.archeo.uni.wroc.pl/15-tom/2-1.pdf
    Last edited by Waldemar; 08-05-2016 at 07:36 AM.

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    New Zealand Maori Croatia Split-Dalmatia Poland Pomerania England Star of David
    Interesting stuff!

    There is a book published that was published in 1994 on one of my Polish lines, called "The Descendants of Johann Jacob Brzoska and Marianna Barbara Klinowska in Poland, New Zealand and the United States".

    There is evidence mentioned in the book about one of my Polish lines possibly originating from around Birka on the small Swedish island of Björkö. This island is near Stockholm and in eastern-central Sweden.

    Around 975 AD Birka was abandoned and around this time the Brusi people arrived in Poland according to the book. The thought is the surname Brzoska developed from the name Brusi over time.
    Ancestry on paper: English, Scottish, Irish, Welsh, Croatian, Ashkenazi, Polish and Māori.

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    Don't get to excited. Partially Polish, not significantly.
    Danes are obviously Germanic, not Slavic.

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    Abstract: Denmark has played a substantial role in the history of Northern Europe. Through a nationwide scientific outreach initiative, we collected genetic and anthropometrical data from ~800 high school students and used them to elucidate the genetic makeup of the Danish population, as well as to assess polygenic predictions of phenotypic traits in adolescents. We observed remarkable homogeneity across different geographic regions, although we could still detect weak signals of genetic structure reflecting the history of the country. Denmark presented genomic affinity with primarily neighboring countries with overall resemblance of decreasing weight from Britain, Sweden, Norway, Germany and France. A Polish admixture signal was detected in Zealand and Funen and our date estimates coincided with historical evidence of Wend settlements in the south of Denmark. We also observed considerably diverse demographic histories among Scandinavian countries, with Denmark having the smallest current effective population size compared to Norway and Sweden. Finally, we found that polygenic prediction of self-reported adolescent height in the population was remarkably accurate (R2 = 0.639±0.015). The high homogeneity of the Danish population could render population structure a lesser concern for the upcoming large-scale gene-mapping studies in the country.


    DK_clusters_%u00252526_admix.jpg

    http://eurogenes.blogspot.co.uk/2016...eneity-of.html
    Last edited by Waldemar; 08-24-2016 at 02:59 PM.

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    Not really that surprising, Denmark is small and has traditionally been a place where people migrate from, not so much to (although they did see allot of Germans and Norwegians migrate to Copenhagen in the past). Anybody know where the Norwegians they used are from? As some part of Norway had a lot of Danish settlement in the past, while others region much less so, that could affect the results a lot..

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