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Thread: Oceanian Studies Discussion

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    Post Oceanian Studies Discussion

    Oceanian Studies Discussion


    Welcome!

    This is a place to discuss the latest research and study findings relating Southeast Asia and Oceania in general. If you are going to post a link to a study, please make sure it follows Section 4 of the forum's Terms of Service.

    Three things to post when sharing a study:

    1. Article title
    2. A summary of the article
    3. A link to the article.
    Last edited by BalkanKiwi; 07-07-2016 at 07:08 AM.
    Ancestry on paper: English, Scottish, Irish, Welsh, Croatian, Ashkenazi, Polish and Māori.

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    Amerijoe has posted a great article regarding Polynesian migration. The University of Queensland (a uni in my city) have conducted research used chemical fingerprinting on stone tools to show sailors travelled throughout the Polynesian islands for several centuries after colonisation. They did this chemical fingerprinting using tools found in the Cook Islands. If anything this confirms that Polynesian's migrated with a purpose.

    Articles

    http://phys.org/news/2016-07-sailors...polynesia.html

    http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2016/06/30/1608130113
    Ancestry on paper: English, Scottish, Irish, Welsh, Croatian, Ashkenazi, Polish and Māori.

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    Quote Originally Posted by BalkanKiwi View Post
    Amerijoe has posted a great article regarding Polynesian migration.
    Have just read a great chapter on Polynesian navigation - "Tupaia goes home" in an unexpected location: Pinpoint: how GPS is changing our world, by Greg Milner, Granta, 2016. (For BalkanKiwi's benefit - BCCL has a copy.)

    Not sure I understand the process yet, but it obviously took a lot of skill.

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    Quote Originally Posted by Saetro View Post
    Have just read a great chapter on Polynesian navigation - "Tupaia goes home" in an unexpected location: Pinpoint: how GPS is changing our world, by Greg Milner, Granta, 2016. (For BalkanKiwi's benefit - BCCL has a copy.)

    Not sure I understand the process yet, but it obviously took a lot of skill.
    Thanks brother! Good find. Without having read it, I think the art of non-instrument navigation is a dying skill. I'm glad there are some organisations out there who are trying keep it around for the younger generations.
    Ancestry on paper: English, Scottish, Irish, Welsh, Croatian, Ashkenazi, Polish and Māori.

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    A genomic history of Aboriginal Australia

    http://www.gizmodo.com.au/2016/09/72...lian-ancestry/

    Original study - http://www.nature.com/nature/journal...ture18299.html

    Some really interesting findings. I've been waiting for an extensive Aboriginal Australian study to be completed.
    Ancestry on paper: English, Scottish, Irish, Welsh, Croatian, Ashkenazi, Polish and Māori.

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    It would have been good to be free view for people. But here is a summary :

    • Australia, Tasmania & New Guinea were one land mass, Sahul, for most of the last 100, 000 years.

    • The earliest evidence for modern Humans is c. 47 – 55, 000 years ago, arriving via “Sunda” (Coastal SEA). They found that Papuans (P) & Aust. Aborigines (AA) are most closely related to each other than other populations of the world.

    • Their modelling favours the single dispersal scenario i.e, AA & P derive from the same initial population which brought all other Eurasian AMHs, an not some earlier, ‘pre-Toba’ group; although not unequivocally (other evidence favours a two-wave model).

    • The ancestors of Australo-Papuans diverged from other Eurasians c. 58 kya (‘other’ being west Eurasians and East Eurasians).

    • They have Neanderthal admixture from before thy split off other out-of –African groups, but their Denisovan admixture is not present in West Eurasians and East Asians, occurring after Australo-Papuans had split off the main trunk.


    • AA and P split c. 37 kya, and AA are as diverged from Papuans, as individual Papuans are from each other.

    • There was a significant desertification of the landscape during the LGM- especially in Australia, resulting in population drops, but also perhaps the physiological and morphological adaptations which came to characterize the populations.

    • There was some mild ongoing contact between Australo-Papuans and Eurasians, the latest one occurring about 4, 000 years ago, from South Asia, already mentioned in earlier genetics papers, and also evidenced by the arrival of the Dingo & Pama–Nyungan languages
    Last edited by Gravetto-Danubian; 09-26-2016 at 12:32 PM.

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    Quote Originally Posted by Gravetto-Danubian View Post
    There was some mild ongoing contact between Australo-Papuans and Eurasians, the latest one occurring about 4, 000 years ago, from South Asia, already mentioned in earlier genetics papers, and also evidenced by the arrival of the Dingo & Pama–Nyungan languages
    The previous study's finding of South Asian gene flow is mentioned in the introduction but failed to be replicated in the results: "We also investigated possible South Asian (Indian-related) gene flow into Aboriginal Australians, as reported recently. However, we found no evidence of a component that can be uniquely assigned to Indian populations in the Aboriginal Australian gene pool using either admixture analyses or f3 and D-statistics (Supplementary Information section S05), even when including the original Aboriginal Australian genotype data from Arnhem Land. The different size and nature of the comparative datasets may account for the discrepency."

    A previous study of Aboriginal Y chromosomes was criticized by members here for excluding putatively colonial haplogroups from analysis and therefore potentially missing interesting signals. In this study all were included, n=44. It comes to 32% C1b and 25% K2b; 18% mixed R1b-L11 and 5% each of I1-Z58, I2a-L460, E1b-M35 (M123 and V13), and J2-M67; 5% O1a-M199 and 2% either O2a-M88 or O3a-Page127 (can't tell from ISOGG version). No R1a or other potentially South Asian markers (other than J2) were in the sample, though, which is not all that big.

    Among the mtDNA (n=83) there was also 2% H1 and 1% E1a2. Maternal E1a and paternal O1a are typical Austronesian markers.

    No rapid star-like expansions could be seen in the tree of Y markers except for one that took place ~5000 years ago... in Europe. Unfortunately they didn't identify the subclades of C1b or MS, so you can tell exactly what sub-branch of L21 introgressed from the British colonists but can't distinguish between Papuan and Australian branches of Sahul haplogroups.

    The C1b clade has a very deep primary branching, which seems to be considerably older than the TMRCA of Australian C1b from the previous study. The minor branch might represent Papuan C1b in the Australian gene pool, but it is found in the least admixed (Western Central Desert) population, with no detectable Papuan ancestry, and on the opposite side of the continent.
    Last edited by Megalophias; 09-26-2016 at 03:24 PM.

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    Quote Originally Posted by Megalophias View Post
    The previous study's finding of South Asian gene flow is mentioned in the introduction but failed to be replicated in the results: "We also investigated possible South Asian (Indian-related) gene flow into Aboriginal Australians, as reported recently. However, we found no evidence of a component that can be uniquely assigned to Indian populations in the Aboriginal Australian gene pool using either admixture analyses or f3 and D-statistics (Supplementary Information section S05), even when including the original Aboriginal Australian genotype data from Arnhem Land. The different size and nature of the comparative datasets may account for the discrepency."

    A previous study of Aboriginal Y chromosomes was criticized by members here for excluding putatively colonial haplogroups from analysis and therefore potentially missing interesting signals. In this study all were included, n=44. It comes to 32% C1b and 25% K2b; 18% mixed R1b-L11 and 5% each of I1-Z58, I2a-L460, E1b-M35 (M123 and V13), and J2-M67; 5% O1a-M199 and 2% either O2a-M88 or O3a-Page127 (can't tell from ISOGG version). No R1a or other potentially South Asian markers (other than J2) were in the sample, though, which is not all that big.

    Among the mtDNA (n=83) there was also 2% H1 and 1% E1a2. Maternal E1a and paternal O1a are typical Austronesian markers.

    No rapid star-like expansions could be seen in the tree of Y markers except for one that took place ~5000 years ago... in Europe. Unfortunately they didn't identify the subclades of C1b or MS, so you can tell exactly what sub-branch of L21 introgressed from the British colonists but can't distinguish between Papuan and Australian branches of Sahul haplogroups.

    The C1b clade has a very deep primary branching, which seems to be considerably older than the TMRCA of Australian C1b from the previous study. The minor branch might represent Papuan C1b in the Australian gene pool, but it is found in the least admixed (Western Central Desert) population, with no detectable Papuan ancestry, and on the opposite side of the continent.
    Indeed. I should have simply said ongoing contact with Eurasia, instead of India/ south Asia specifically.

    Speaking of which, the lack of Pap-Austral. type Y lineages in south Asia (K*, little C, etc), as well as the shallower age of mtDNA M compared to SEA speaks of a major de-peopling event in India, at some point in the late Pleistocene / early Holocene, does it not ?

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    New results from a study, "The First People to Settle Polynesia Came from Asia"

    Quick summary

    The first settlers of the far-flung Pacific islands of Tonga and Vanuatu likely arrived from Taiwan and the northern Philippines between 2,300 and 3,100 years ago, a new genetic analysis suggests.

    Ancient DNA extracted from skeletons at two archaeological sites on the islands helps paint this picture of how the remotest reaches of the Pacific were first colonized.

    "The people of Vanuatu today are descended from Asia first of all. They were straight out of Taiwan and perhaps the northern Philippines," study co-author Matthew Spriggs, an archaeologist and anthropologist at the Australian National University,
    http://www.livescience.com/56382-ori...om-taiwan.html

    I find their thoughts on the females staying in groups but the males moving on, such as Papuan males moving to Lapita-like groups intriguing. It would probably explain the admixing of Papuan into other Oceanian groups.
    Ancestry on paper: English, Scottish, Irish, Welsh, Croatian, Ashkenazi, Polish and Māori.

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