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Thread: Genetic Genealogy & Ancient DNA in the News (DISCUSSION ONLY)

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    Quote Originally Posted by Milkyway View Post
    Projecting ancient ancestry in modern-day Arabians and Iranians: a key role of the past exposed Arabo-Persian Gulf on human migrations

    Joana C. Ferreira, Farida Alshamali, Francesco Montinaro, Bruno Cavadas, Antonio Torroni, Luisa Pereira, Alessandro Raveane, Veronica Fernandes

    Abstract

    Arabian Peninsula is strategic for investigations centred on the structuring of the modern human population in the three main groups, in the awake of the out-of-Africa migration. Despite the poor climatic conditions for recovery of ancient DNA human evidence in Arabia, the availability of genomic data from neighbouring ancient specimens and of informative statistical tools allow better modelling the ancestry of these populations. We applied this approach to a dataset of 741,000 variants screened in 291 Arabians and 78 Iranians, and obtained insightful evidence. The west-east axis was a strong forcer of population structure in the Peninsula, and, more importantly, there were clear continuums throughout time linking west Arabia with Levant, and east Arabia with Iran and Caucasus. East Arabians also displayed the highest levels of the basal Eurasian lineage of all tested modern-day populations, a signal that was maintained even after correcting for possible bias due to recent sub-Saharan African input in their genomes. Not surprisingly, east Arabians were also the ones with higher similarity with Iberomaurusians, who were so far the best proxy for the basal Eurasians amongst the known ancient specimens. The basal Eurasian lineage is the signature of ancient non-Africans that diverged from the common European-East Asian pool before 50 thousand years ago, and before the later interbred with Neanderthals. Our results are strong evidence to include the exposed basin of the Arabo-Persian Gulf as possible home of basal Eurasians, to be investigated further on namely by searching ancient Arabian human specimens.
    The trove of modern Arabian samples (actually from Fernandes 2019) analyzed here are indeed archived on the European Genome-Phenome Archive, but hobbyists like us will never be given permission to access to them.

    Note: I only posted this here because Milkyway posted the quote above in the ancient DNA titles thread.
    Ελευθερία ή θάνατος.

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    Quote Originally Posted by Michalis Moriopoulos View Post
    The trove of modern Arabian samples (actually from Fernandes 2019) analyzed here are indeed archived on the European Genome-Phenome Archive, but hobbyists like us will never be given permission to access to them.

    Note: I only posted this here because Milkyway posted the quote above in the ancient DNA titles thread.
    Any idea why? Rights and permissions issue?
    ἦθος ἀνθρώπῳ δαίμων

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    Quote Originally Posted by traject View Post
    Any idea why? Rights and permissions issue?
    Most likely. In this case you can get in touch with one of the authors and ask for the dataset.

    Genome-wide characterization of Arabian Peninsula populations
    Contact person: Luisa Pereira
    Email: lpereira [at] ipatimup [dot] pt
    More details: EGAC00001001073

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    Quote Originally Posted by Milkyway View Post
    Projecting ancient ancestry in modern-day Arabians and Iranians: a key role of the past exposed Arabo-Persian Gulf on human migrations

    Joana C. Ferreira, Farida Alshamali, Francesco Montinaro, Bruno Cavadas, Antonio Torroni, Luisa Pereira, Alessandro Raveane, Veronica Fernandes

    Abstract

    Arabian Peninsula is strategic for investigations centred on the structuring of the modern human population in the three main groups, in the awake of the out-of-Africa migration. Despite the poor climatic conditions for recovery of ancient DNA human evidence in Arabia, the availability of genomic data from neighbouring ancient specimens and of informative statistical tools allow better modelling the ancestry of these populations. We applied this approach to a dataset of 741,000 variants screened in 291 Arabians and 78 Iranians, and obtained insightful evidence. The west-east axis was a strong forcer of population structure in the Peninsula, and, more importantly, there were clear continuums throughout time linking west Arabia with Levant, and east Arabia with Iran and Caucasus. East Arabians also displayed the highest levels of the basal Eurasian lineage of all tested modern-day populations, a signal that was maintained even after correcting for possible bias due to recent sub-Saharan African input in their genomes. Not surprisingly, east Arabians were also the ones with higher similarity with Iberomaurusians, who were so far the best proxy for the basal Eurasians amongst the known ancient specimens. The basal Eurasian lineage is the signature of ancient non-Africans that diverged from the common European-East Asian pool before 50 thousand years ago, and before the later interbred with Neanderthals. Our results are strong evidence to include the exposed basin of the Arabo-Persian Gulf as possible home of basal Eurasians, to be investigated further on namely by searching ancient Arabian human specimens.
    ...
    "Ust’-Ishim and X were used as proxies for non-basal and basal Eurasian lineage, respectively. The X was a rather recent ancient specimen of admixed basal Eurasian ancestry: Levant pre-Neolithic Natufian (A); North Africa Iberomaurusian (B) Caucasus Kotias huntergatherer (C); Caucasus Satsurblia hunter-gatherer (D); and Iranian Zagros (E) farmer ...

    "the west-east axis can be as ancient as the aftermath of the successful OOA migration, with the older signal located around the then exposed basin of the Arabo-Persian Gulf. Only recently, it has been demonstrated (Fernandes, et al. 2019) that the axis was maintained throughout as testified by distinctive positive selection signals for more recent variants conferring malaria protection (higher in the west) ... "



    While this is a bit counterintutive, it makes sense that it is east Arabians and not west Arabians that have more of the so called Basal.
    It has been my thinking that the Makran area had no Neanderthal presence, and we know that the Makran area was connected to east Arabia ~55000ybp.
    50-60,000 Years Ago – Migration Routes


    Present Day – with Ancient Migration Routes


    "the ice slowly began to build up on Antarctica and in the northern Hemisphere. As a result, sea levels dropped, exposing huge areas of once drowned land as Australia once more joined its island neighbours to form the enlarged continent of Sahul.
    About this time a new kind of placental mammal – Homo sapiens – had begun to move out of Africa , and would eventually make its home across Asia ...
    Making landfall on Sahul was no easy task and says much about the capabilities of the first people who entered the continent; the first Australians.
    Even with sea level 70 metres lower than today the journey by any route involved at least six island hops followed by a final open ocean crossing of around 100 kilometres before Australia could be reached."
    https://sciences.adelaide.edu.au/new...es-rising-seas

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    Quote Originally Posted by parasar View Post
    ...
    "Ust’-Ishim and X were used as proxies for non-basal and basal Eurasian lineage, respectively. The X was a rather recent ancient specimen of admixed basal Eurasian ancestry: Levant pre-Neolithic Natufian (A); North Africa Iberomaurusian ( Caucasus Kotias huntergatherer (C); Caucasus Satsurblia hunter-gatherer (D); and Iranian Zagros (E) farmer ...

    "the west-east axis can be as ancient as the aftermath of the successful OOA migration, with the older signal located around the then exposed basin of the Arabo-Persian Gulf. Only recently, it has been demonstrated (Fernandes, et al. 2019) that the axis was maintained throughout as testified by distinctive positive selection signals for more recent variants conferring malaria protection (higher in the west) ... "



    While this is a bit counterintutive, it makes sense that it is east Arabians and not west Arabians that have more of the so called Basal.
    It has been my thinking that the Makran area had no Neanderthal presence, and we know that the Makran area was connected to east Arabia ~55000ybp.
    50-60,000 Years Ago – Migration Routes


    Present Day – with Ancient Migration Routes


    "the ice slowly began to build up on Antarctica and in the northern Hemisphere. As a result, sea levels dropped, exposing huge areas of once drowned land as Australia once more joined its island neighbours to form the enlarged continent of Sahul.
    About this time a new kind of placental mammal – Homo sapiens – had begun to move out of Africa , and would eventually make its home across Asia ...
    Making landfall on Sahul was no easy task and says much about the capabilities of the first people who entered the continent; the first Australians.
    Even with sea level 70 metres lower than today the journey by any route involved at least six island hops followed by a final open ocean crossing of around 100 kilometres before Australia could be reached."
    https://sciences.adelaide.edu.au/new...es-rising-seas
    You think Basal Eurasians used the coastal route?

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    Quote Originally Posted by davit View Post
    You think Basal Eurasians used the coastal route?
    I would say yes, even though much of the route is under water or very humid which would make it near impossible to find evidence, we still have hope of some evidence from western Australia.




    "We present an Aboriginal Australian genomic sequence obtained from a 100-year-old lock of hair donated by an Aboriginal man from southern Western Australia in the early 20th century. We detect no evidence of European admixture and estimate contamination levels to be below 0.5%. We show that Aboriginal Australians are descendants of an early human dispersal into eastern Asia, possibly 62,000 to 75,000 years ago. This dispersal is separate from the one that gave rise to modern Asians 25,000 to 38,000 years ago. We also find evidence of gene flow between populations of the two dispersal waves prior to the divergence of Native Americans from modern Asian ancestors. Our findings support the hypothesis that present-day Aboriginal Australians descend from the earliest humans to occupy Australia, likely representing one of the oldest continuous populations outside Africa."
    https://science.sciencemag.org/content/334/6052/94

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    Quote Originally Posted by parasar View Post
    I would say yes, even though much of the route is under water or very humid which would make it near impossible to find evidence, we still have hope of some evidence from western Australia.




    "We present an Aboriginal Australian genomic sequence obtained from a 100-year-old lock of hair donated by an Aboriginal man from southern Western Australia in the early 20th century. We detect no evidence of European admixture and estimate contamination levels to be below 0.5%. We show that Aboriginal Australians are descendants of an early human dispersal into eastern Asia, possibly 62,000 to 75,000 years ago. This dispersal is separate from the one that gave rise to modern Asians 25,000 to 38,000 years ago. We also find evidence of gene flow between populations of the two dispersal waves prior to the divergence of Native Americans from modern Asian ancestors. Our findings support the hypothesis that present-day Aboriginal Australians descend from the earliest humans to occupy Australia, likely representing one of the oldest continuous populations outside Africa."
    https://science.sciencemag.org/content/334/6052/94
    What would explain the lack of Basal Eurasian in S/SE Asians + Australians? I guess South Asians have some but isn't that more likely a result of Iranian pateau admixture than an early migration?
    Last edited by davit; 02-25-2021 at 08:17 PM.

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    Quote Originally Posted by davit View Post
    What would explain the lack of Basal Eurasian in S/SE Asians + Australians? I guess South Asians have some but isn't that more likely a result of Iranian pateau admixture than an early migration?
    That is why I use the term so called Basal.
    By defintion Basal at the time of its split = ancestors of ENA, Australians, Ongee, etc.
    Essentially either branch at the moment of split is basal to the other.

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    Quote Originally Posted by parasar View Post
    That is why I use the term so called Basal.
    By defintion Basal at the time of its split = ancestors of ENA, Australians, Ongee, etc.
    Essentially either branch at the moment of split is basal to the other.
    I see. I was referring to the non West and non East Eurasian component found in ancient Middle Easterners.

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    Quote Originally Posted by Michalis Moriopoulos View Post
    The trove of modern Arabian samples (actually from Fernandes 2019) analyzed here are indeed archived on the European Genome-Phenome Archive, but hobbyists like us will never be given permission to access to them.

    Note: I only posted this here because Milkyway posted the quote above in the ancient DNA titles thread.
    I'll see what I can do

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