Page 1 of 3 123 LastLast
Results 1 to 10 of 27

Thread: Neolithic mitochondrial haplogroup H genomes (Brotherton et al 2013)

  1. #1
    Legacy Account
    Posts
    7,362
    Sex
    Location
    United Kingdom
    Nationality
    British
    mtDNA (M)
    H

    United Kingdom

    Neolithic mitochondrial haplogroup H genomes (Brotherton et al 2013)

    Paul Brotherton et al, Neolithic mitochondrial haplogroup H genomes and the genetic origins of Europeans

    Haplogroup H dominates present-day Western European mitochondrial DNA variability (>40%), yet was less common (~19%) among Early Neolithic farmers (~5450 BC) and virtually absent in Mesolithic hunter-gatherers. Here we investigate this major component of the maternal population history of modern Europeans and sequence 39 complete haplogroup H mitochondrial genomes from ancient human remains. We then compare this ‘real-time’ genetic data with cultural changes taking place between the Early Neolithic (~5450 BC) and Bronze Age (~2200 BC) in Central Europe. Our results reveal that the current diversity and distribution of haplogroup H were largely established by the Mid Neolithic (~4000 BC), but with substantial genetic contributions from subsequent pan-European cultures such as the Bell Beakers expanding out of Iberia in the Late Neolithic (~2800 BC). Dated haplogroup H genomes allow us to reconstruct the recent evolutionary history of haplogroup H and reveal a mutation rate 45% higher than current estimates for human mitochondria.
    The complete consensus mt genome sequences have been deposited to NCBI GenBank under accession numbers KC553980 to KC554018. The results are also in my online table of Ancient Western Eurasian DNA.

  2. The Following 4 Users Say Thank You to Jean M For This Useful Post:

     Clinton P (04-23-2013),  DMXX (04-24-2013),  GailT (04-24-2013)

  3. #2
    Legacy Account
    Posts
    7,362
    Sex
    Location
    United Kingdom
    Nationality
    British
    mtDNA (M)
    H

    United Kingdom
    Crucial points from the paper:

    Early Neolithic (and in particular LBK) mt genomes are either rare today (H16, H23 and H26), extinct or have not yet been observed in present-day populations (H46b, H88 and H89). In sharp contrast, most of the later H sub-hgs are more common in present-day European populations (for example, hg H3, H4, H6, H7, H11 and H13)12,14–16. Of the 39 haplotypes detected, only three (within the common, basal, sub-hg H1) were shared between Early Neolithic and Middle to Late Neolithic cultures. As the later Neolithic haplotypes are on different sub-hg branches from the Early Neolithic haplotypes, these patterns combined show minimal local genetic continuity over this time period.

    LBK and Bell Beaker samples were not related to present-day Germans. Although all three ancient groups were sampled from the same Central European location only the Middle Neolithic group genetically resembles present-day populations from this region.

    Mittelelbe-Saale’s earliest farmers (LBK) cluster with present-day Caucasus, Near Eastern and Anatolian populations. Mitochondrial genomes
    from Bell Beaker individuals in Mittelelbe-Saale display close genetic affinities to present-day Iberian populations. This is largely based on high frequencies of sub-hgs H1 and H3, which are thought to have spread from a glacial Iberian refugium. [I have my doubts.]

    The calibrated ‘Neolithic’ rate infers a considerably younger coalescence date for hg H (10.9–19.1 kya) than those previously reported.
    Last edited by Jean M; 04-23-2013 at 09:07 PM.

  4. The Following 2 Users Say Thank You to Jean M For This Useful Post:

     kingjohn (07-02-2016),  Táltos (12-16-2013)

  5. #3
    Registered Users
    Posts
    928
    Sex
    Omitted
    Location
    Colorado, USA
    mtDNA (M)
    U5a2a1

    Thanks, Jean. It's an excellent paper, and I'm busy comparing their ancient samples to the FTDNA projects now to see if we can say anything more about current distributions of the rare subclades.

    Quote Originally Posted by Jean M View Post
    The calibrated ‘Neolithic’ rate infers a considerably younger coalescence date for hg H (10.9–19.1 kya) than those previously reported.
    The midpoint 15 kya is only slightly older than the Behar et al. 2012 estimate of about 13 kya for haplogroup H, but given the uncertainty range, this is quite consistent. So their estimate and also the Behar et al estimate are both considerably younger than previous estimates for H that were much older.

    This paper is the nail in the coffin for the "H1 and H3 glacial Iberian refugium" theory, which was never based on good science, but rather a very early, naive form of phylogeography. They pound that nail a couple of time in the paper, including in the end of the Discussion section.

    Overall, our results suggest that the broad foundations of the Central European mtDNA pool, here approximated via hg H, were formed during the Neolithic rather than the post-glacial
    period. ENE hg H mt lineages brought in from the Near East by Central Europe’s first farmers do not appear to have contributed significantly to present-day Central Europe’s hg H diversity,
    instead being largely superseded during the MNE and LNE (with the process starting around 4000 BC), after which there appears to have been substantial genetic continuity to the present-day in Central Europe.

    In conclusion, demographic changes across the MNE, followed by the widespread Bell Beaker cultural phenomenon, are likely to have been the key factors in the expansion of hg H across
    Western Europe and the eventual rise of hg H to become the predominant mtDNA hg.

  6. #4
    Legacy Account
    Posts
    7,362
    Sex
    Location
    United Kingdom
    Nationality
    British
    mtDNA (M)
    H

    United Kingdom
    Curiously they still stick to the idea that H1 and H3 spread from Iberia. I doubt it.

  7. The Following 2 Users Say Thank You to Jean M For This Useful Post:

     DMXX (04-24-2013),  Jenny (03-22-2014)

  8. #5
    Administrator
    Posts
    3,759
    Sex
    Y-DNA (P)
    R2a*-M124 (L295-)
    mtDNA (M)
    D4j5*

    England
    Quote Originally Posted by Jean M View Post
    Curiously they still stick to the idea that H1 and H3 spread from Iberia. I doubt it.
    Is there any genetic proof of any expansions out of the Iberian peninsula into Europe, or is it all conjecture?

  9. #6
    Legacy Account
    Posts
    7,362
    Sex
    Location
    United Kingdom
    Nationality
    British
    mtDNA (M)
    H

    United Kingdom
    Quote Originally Posted by DMXX View Post
    Is there any genetic proof of any expansions out of the Iberian peninsula into Europe, or is it all conjecture?
    The idea was originally based on high density in Iberia, plus the knowledge that Cantabria was an Ice Age refuge, just the same as the conjecture that R1b spread from Iberia. Once people wean themselves from the ideas that density = origin point, and that nobody moved in Europe after the Mesolithic, what is left?

    As they say themselves, H seems to have spread into Europe from the Near East with farmers.
    Last edited by Jean M; 04-24-2013 at 06:48 PM.

  10. #7
    J Man
    Guest
    What about the H samples from Upper Paleolithic Iberia and Mesolithic Karelia? Maybe some H in Europe is of pre-Neolithic origin?

  11. #8
    Legacy Account
    Posts
    7,362
    Sex
    Location
    United Kingdom
    Nationality
    British
    mtDNA (M)
    H

    United Kingdom
    Could be, J Man, but every time we get a new date calculated for H, it gets earlier. Behar 2012 worked it out at 12,846 years ago = 10,000 BC. He has H1 at 9,888 years ago = 7,888 BC and H3 at 8,919 years ago = 6,919 BC. Such estimates are not infallible, but it is telling that H-type mtDNAs from Europe have on average six differences in their coding region, while U-type mtDNAs have on average 18 differences. That suggests a much older population expansion in U than in H. See Fu, Q., Rudan, P., Pääbo, S. and Krause, J. 2012. Complete mitochondrial genomes reveal Neolithic expansion into Europe, PLoS ONE, 7 (3), e32473., which showed a dramatic growth spurt around 9,000 years ago (7000 BC) for H with the spread of farming into Europe.

    So claims of H in aDNA at an earlier date now get a sceptical eye from me. They really need to provide a full mtDNA genome and proof of measures taken to avoid contamination, including replication of results in two different labs.
    Last edited by Jean M; 04-24-2013 at 08:25 PM.

  12. The Following User Says Thank You to Jean M For This Useful Post:


  13. #9
    J Man
    Guest
    Quote Originally Posted by Jean M View Post
    Could be, J Man, but every time we get a new date calculated for H, it gets earlier. Behar 2012 worked it out at 12,846 years ago = 10,000 BC. He has H1 at 9,888 years ago = 7,888 BC and H3 at 8,919 years ago = 6,919 BC. Such estimates are not infallible, but it is telling that H-type mtDNAs from Europe have on average six differences in their coding region, while U-type mtDNAs have on average 18 differences. That suggests a much older population expansion in U than in H. See Fu, Q., Rudan, P., Pääbo, S. and Krause, J. 2012. Complete mitochondrial genomes reveal Neolithic expansion into Europe, PLoS ONE, 7 (3), e32473., which showed a dramatic growth spurt around 9,000 years ago (7000 BC) for H with the spread of farming into Europe.
    Maybe the case is that a few subclades of H were present in Upper Paleolithic and Mesolithic Europe but the majority arrived during the Neolithic with farming. What do you think about that?

  14. #10
    Legacy Account
    Posts
    7,362
    Sex
    Location
    United Kingdom
    Nationality
    British
    mtDNA (M)
    H

    United Kingdom
    The odds on that scenario don't look good from where I'm sitting. I wouldn't bet on it.

  15. The Following User Says Thank You to Jean M For This Useful Post:


Page 1 of 3 123 LastLast

Posting Permissions

  • You may not post new threads
  • You may not post replies
  • You may not post attachments
  • You may not edit your posts
  •