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Thread: Ancient DNA from Xueshan and Lower Xiajiadian cultures (Neolithic Northern China)

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    Ancient DNA from Xueshan and Lower Xiajiadian cultures (Neolithic Northern China)

    Genetic diversity of two Neolithic populations provides evidence of farming expansions in North China
    Ye Zhang 2016


    Xueshan culture (Jiangjialiang site) 56004900 BP (s=17)
    58.8% N*-M231 (xN1c2a-M128, xN1c1-Tat)
    41.2% N1c1-Tat

    mtDNA
    R = 17.1%
    >R* = 4.9%
    >B = 9.8%
    >F = 2.4%

    N = 14.6%
    >A = 14.6%

    Lower Xiajiadian culture (Sanguan site) 45003500 BP (s=4)
    100% O2-M122


    "The earliest evidence of crop domestication dates to 8500 BP at the Xinglongwa site"
    Last edited by AndresT; 09-04-2016 at 07:18 AM.

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    Their languages would be different. N spoke Ural/Altaic and O3 chinese.

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    Quote Originally Posted by AndresT View Post
    58.8% N1* (xN1a, xN1c) likely N1b
    Am I right that you refer to ISOGG N1b L732? In the new N paper it is called N4 F2930, and in yfull it is N-F2905, formed 18200 ybp, TMRCA 16200 ybp. Except for a rare N-L731 Polish branch, this branch is not found in Europe.

    I am asking this to avoid confusion with N-P43 which was before called N1b.

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    Does anyone know if this N1c is N3c B496 or N3b B187 or N3a (according to Ilume et al, 2016)?

    N3c B496 has only been detected in Japanese with a very low frequency while N3c B496 is found in Khakasses, Shors, Altaians and Tuvinians in South Siberia.
    Last edited by Kristiina; 09-04-2016 at 06:51 AM.

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    Kristiina, I will Edit. Thanks

    Changed according to ISOGG.
    Last edited by AndresT; 09-04-2016 at 07:13 AM.

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    N1c-Tat in Neolithic China ? o_O wow. Is this normal?

    From the paper.

    The resulting Y-chromosome analysis indicated the presence of a
    rare haplogroup N1c-Tat in the JJL population. This is an unexpected
    result for ancient populations in North China. Searching through
    previously reported Y-chromosome variations for 119 known ancient
    individuals from 13 archeological sites (approximately dated to
    6000

    2000 years ago) in North China, the N1c-Tat was found in
    only three individuals from the Bronze Age Dashanqian site (~1000
    BC) in the West Liao River Valley.
    38,39,45
    Considering the rarity of the N1c-Tat haplogroup distribution in
    the ancient populations throughout the late Neolithic and Bronze
    Ages, it is possible that N1c-Tat represented the local population of the
    Sanggan River Valley. These people may be the original settlers who
    used a hunter-gatherer subsistence strategy in the Sanggan River
    Valley. During the shift from hunting to farming, they likely embraced
    new techniques and then began to use farming technology.
    The haplogroup N1 (N1a, N1c) was widely distributed at a
    high density in ancient populations of North China but at a much
    lower frequency (o 5.96%) in modern East Asian populations.
    42
    Previous studies supported that haplogroup N1 expanded into North
    China 12

    18 kya.
    46,47
    High-frequency distributions of N1 (N1a,
    N1c) (Table 2) were observed in populations from the West Liao
    River Valley during the Neolithic and early Bronze Age,
    38
    showing that
    it became the dominant Y-chromosome lineage of North China at that
    time. Through the West Liao River Valley, researchers argued that the
    N1 (N1a, N1c) haplogroup migrated to northwestern China (for
    example, the Bronze Age Tianshanbeilu site in Xinjiang)
    43
    and the
    Yellow River Valley (for example, the Hengbei site).
    48
    The presence of
    N1 (N1a, N1c) haplogroup in the ancient JJL population
    suggested that this population maybe in close af
    fi
    nity with the West
    Liao River Valley populations. This suggests possible genetic exchanges
    between the West Liao River Valley and the Sanggan River Valley
    populations.
    Haplogroup O3-M122 is the main lineage of the Yellow River
    Valley.
    49
    It is, however, not present in the JJL population by this study.
    Artifacts excavated from the JJL site also showed more stylistic features
    of the Hongshan culture of the West Liao River Valley.
    19
    Genetic and
    archeological evidence indicates that people from the Yellow River
    Valley probably did not reach the Sanggan River Valley before 3000
    BC. Therefore, people from the West Liao River Valley, not the Yellow
    River Valley, most likely first in fluenced the agricultural practices in
    the Sanggan River Valley

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    Quote Originally Posted by Kristiina View Post
    Am I right that you refer to ISOGG N1b L732? In the new N paper it is called N4 F2930, and in yfull it is N-F2905, formed 18200 ybp, TMRCA 16200 ybp. Except for a rare N-L731 Polish branch, this branch is not found in Europe.
    YFull's N-L732 haplotree also shows a Belarusian N-L732*.

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    Quote Originally Posted by Arame View Post
    N1c-Tat in Neolithic China ? o_O wow. Is this normal?

    From the paper.
    There's a branch which separated ~12,000 years ago found in modern Japanese so not that implausible. Tat as a whole is 15,000 years old so plenty of time to spread.

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