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Thread: Ancient DNA reveals Europe's dynamic genetic history

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    Ancient DNA reveals Europe's dynamic genetic history

    Ancient DNA reveals Europe's dynamic genetic history

    http://archaeologynewsnetwork.blogsp...s-dynamic.html
    Posted by TANN Anthropology, Breakingnews, Early Humans, Genetics 12:30 AM

    Ancient DNA recovered from a series of skeletons in central Germany up to 7,500 years old has been used to reconstruct the first detailed genetic history of modern Europe.

    Ancient DNA recovered from a series of skeletons in central Germany up to 7,500 years old has been used to reconstruct the first detailed genetic history of modern Europe [Credit: NIR News]
    The study, published today in Nature Communications, reveals a dramatic series of events including major migrations from both Western Europe and Eurasia, and signs of an unexplained genetic turnover about 4,000 to 5,000 years ago.

    The research was performed at the University of Adelaide's Australian Centre for Ancient DNA (ACAD). Researchers used DNA extracted from bone and teeth samples from prehistoric human skeletons to sequence a group of maternal genetic lineages that are now carried by up to 45% of Europeans.

    The international team also included the University of Mainz in Germany and the National Geographic Society's Genographic Project.

    "This is the first high-resolution genetic record of these lineages through time, and it is fascinating that we can directly observe both human DNA evolving in 'real-time', and the dramatic population changes that have taken place in Europe," says joint lead author Dr Wolfgang Haak of ACAD.

    "We can follow over 4,000 years of prehistory, from the earliest farmers through the early Bronze Age to modern times."

    "The record of this maternally inherited genetic group, called Haplogroup H, shows that the first farmers in Central Europe resulted from a wholesale cultural and genetic input via migration, beginning in Turkey and the Near East where farming originated and arriving in Germany around 7,500 years ago," says joint lead author Dr Paul Brotherton, formerly at ACAD and now at the University of Huddersfield, UK.

    ACAD Director Professor Alan Cooper says: "What is intriguing is that the genetic markers of this first pan-European culture, which was clearly very successful, were then suddenly replaced around 4,500 years ago, and we don't know why. Something major happened, and the hunt is now on to find out what that was."

    The team developed new advances in molecular biology to sequence entire mitochondrial genomes from the ancient skeletons. This is the first ancient population study using a large number of mitochondrial genomes.

    "We have established that the genetic foundations for modern Europe were only established in the Mid-Neolithic, after this major genetic transition around 4,000 years ago," says Dr Haak. "This genetic diversity was then modified further by a series of incoming and expanding cultures from Iberia and Eastern Europe through the Late Neolithic."

    "The expansion of the Bell Beaker culture (named after their pots) appears to have been a key event, emerging in Iberia around 2800 BC and arriving in Germany several centuries later," says Dr Brotherton. "This is a very interesting group as they have been linked to the expansion of Celtic languages along the Atlantic coast and into central Europe."

    "These well-dated ancient genetic sequences provide a unique opportunity to investigate the demographic history of Europe," says Professor Cooper.

    "We can not only estimate population sizes but also accurately determine the evolutionary rate of the sequences, providing a far more accurate timescale of significant events in recent human evolution."

    The team has been working closely on the genetic prehistory of Europeans for the past 7-8 years.

    Professor Kurt Alt (University of Mainz) says: "This work shows the power of archaeology and ancient DNA working together to reconstruct human evolutionary history through time. We are currently expanding this approach to other transects across Europe."

    Genographic Project director Spencer Wells says: "Studies such as this on ancient remains serve as a valuable adjunct to the work we are doing with modern populations in the Genographic Project. While the DNA of people alive today can reveal the end result of their ancestors' ancient movements, to really understand the dynamics of how modern genetic patterns were created we need to study ancient material as well."

    Source: University of Adelaide [April 23, 2013]

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    Yes this paper is causing quite a stir. It is already under discussion in Neolithic mitochondrial haplogroup H genomes (Brotherton et al 2013) (in the H forum) and Correlation of R1b with mt DNA H? If so, what does that mean to R1b movements? (in the R1b General forum).

    ACAD Director Professor Alan Cooper says: "What is intriguing is that the genetic markers of this first pan-European culture, which was clearly very successful, were then suddenly replaced around 4,500 years ago, and we don't know why. Something major happened, and the hunt is now on to find out what that was."
    I have been telling the world what it was for years online (not that I was the first), and I think the authors of this paper are groping their way towards it. There is always a delay between idea and print.
    Last edited by Jean M; 04-26-2013 at 05:42 PM.

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    It certainly is causing a stir!

    http://www.livescience.com/28954-anc...-vanished.html





    Skeleton from Sweden.jpg

    "DNA taken from ancient European skeletons reveals that the genetic makeup of Europe mysteriously transformed about 4,500 years ago, new research suggests. Here, a skeleton, not used in the study, but from the same time period, that was excavated from a grave in Sweden."
    R1b1a2a1a1b3 U152+ Z56+ Z144/Z145/Z146+ P312+ U106- M228.2- M160- M126- L4- L21- L2- L196- L176.2- DYS492=14 Roma, Italia.

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    And also e! Science News: Ancient DNA reveals Europe's dynamic genetic history

    Ancient DNA recovered from a series of skeletons in central Germany up to 7,500 years old has been used to reconstruct the first detailed genetic history of modern Europe.
    Science World Report: Ancient DNA Unlocks Secrets of Europe's Genetic Past
    Researchers have recovered ancient DNA from a series of skeletons in central Germany that have allowed them to reconstruct the genetic history of Europe's past. About 4,500 years ago, Europe experienced a genetic shift. Now, researchers can more closely examine that shift and the 7,500 years of genetic history of modern Europe. They've recovered ancient DNA from a series of skeletons in central Germany that have allowed them to reconstruct the past.

    The findings, though, didn't come easily. The team had to develop new advances in molecular biology in order to sequence the entire mitochondrial genomes from the recovered ancient skeletons. Yet the effort was worth it. The findings reveal a dramatic series of events that occurred in Europe in the ancient past, including major migrations from both Western Europe and Eurasia.
    Headlines & Global News: Ancient DNA Unlocks Europe’s Genetic History

    Ancient DNA recovered from nearly 40 ancient skeletons in central Germany up to 7500 years old has been offered hints to the intricate prehistoric events that shaped modern European populations. The study, published today in Nature Communications, offers a never seen before glimpse into a series of events including major migrations from both Western Europe and Eurasia, and signs of an unexplained genetic turnover about 4000-5000 years ago.
    Fox News: Ancient Europeans mysteriously vanished 4,500 years ago

    The genetic lineage of Europe mysteriously transformed about 4,500 years ago, new research suggests. The findings, detailed today (April 23) in the journal Nature Communications, were drawn from several skeletons unearthed in central Europe that were up to 7,500 years old.
    Science Recorder: Study finds ancient Europeans mysteriously vanished 4500 years ago

    A study released today in Nature Communications revealed that modern Europeans are not as old as experts initially thought. 39 skeletons recovered from central Germany have been DNA tested by researchers with the University of Adelaide’s Australian Center for Ancient DNA (ACAD). The skeletons, which range in age from 7,500 to 2,500 years old, had samples taken from their teeth and bones that showed maternal genetic lineages present in roughly 45 percent of current Europeans
    Sci-News.com: DNA Study Reveals Genetic History of Europe

    An international team of scientists has used ancient DNA recovered from human remains dating from up to 5,500 BC to reconstruct the first detailed genetic history of modern Europe.
    GlobalPost: European genetic history mystery uncovered using ancient DNA

    Europe's genetic history was unlocked by researchers this week with a new DNA-based study. Researchers found that the modern European gene pool originated from about 4000 to 2000 years ago.

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    Well at least it made it out there!
    R1b1a2a1a1b3 U152+ Z56+ Z144/Z145/Z146+ P312+ U106- M228.2- M160- M126- L4- L21- L2- L196- L176.2- DYS492=14 Roma, Italia.

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    It shows the value of a really good press release.

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    Yes indeed. Did you see the link I posted to your profile? It's Bell Beaker related ;-)
    R1b1a2a1a1b3 U152+ Z56+ Z144/Z145/Z146+ P312+ U106- M228.2- M160- M126- L4- L21- L2- L196- L176.2- DYS492=14 Roma, Italia.

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    Thanks Diana. Seen it now.

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    I like this paper, but I think some of the media hype has gotten ahead of the data. I've been spending some time comparing the LBK samples to GenBank and the FTDNA project. LBK were the first early Neolithic farmers in Germany, about 8000 ybp. But were they mysteriously replaced? Here are 9 LBK samples:

    Three of the samples are totally unique:
    DEB9 and KAR6a are unique H lineages that have not yet been found in modern populations.
    KAR16a is unique H46b subclade, and there are only 4 other known modern H46 samples.

    KAR11b and HAL11 have very common control region mutations that are not useful phylogeny, so I would call these effectively ancestral H. HAL11 could be pre-H27.

    HAL29 and DEB31 are very common H1e and H1j subclades, suggesting population continuity.

    HAL36 is H23, and HAL32 is H26, both of which are fairly common in Europe today, again suggesting continuity.

    It is also important to consider that we have over nearly 100 H named subclades and about 50 unnamed H lineages in modern samples that are represented by a single sample, so there is great diversity in H.

    It is clear that there is a change in the H distribution from the the early to late Neolithic, with the other more common H subclades appearing in later culture, but I think the data are best explained by a combination of migration and continuity, rather than total replacement of LBK. We also have some continuity of U5 from the Paleolithic to the modern period in this region, which also supports the theory that early Neolithic H was not completely replaced. So it looks like multiple waves of migration with partial replacement.

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  12. #10
    Quote Originally Posted by GailT View Post
    It is clear that there is a change in the H distribution from the the early to late Neolithic, with the other more common H subclades appearing in later culture, but I think the data are best explained by a combination of migration and continuity, rather than total replacement of LBK. We also have some continuity of U5 from the Paleolithic to the modern period in this region, which also supports the theory that early Neolithic H was not completely replaced. So it looks like multiple waves of migration with partial replacement.
    It seems that these attributions are likely, but probably many of these haplotypes haven’t descendants now, only because many went extinct. The same happened for Etruscan haplotypes and also for recent examined Copper Age haplotypes in North Western Tuscany. The continuity of the survived haplotypes with previous European ones shouldn’t be excluded if we don’t find the ancestors of modern haplotypes elsewhere.
    Last edited by Rathna; 04-27-2013 at 06:50 AM.

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