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Thread: Genetic Genealogy & Ancient DNA in the News (TITLES/ABSTRACTS ONLY)

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    https://science.sciencemag.org/content/370/6516/579

    Denisovan ancestry and population history of early East Asians

    Diyendo Massilani1,*, Laurits Skov1, Mateja Hajdinjak1,2, Byambaa Gunchinsuren3, Damdinsuren Tseveendorj3, Seonbok Yi4, Jungeun Lee4, Sarah Nagel1, Birgit Nickel1, Thibaut Devièse5, Tom Higham5, Matthias Meyer1, Janet Kelso1, Benjamin M. Peter1, Svante Pääbo1,*

    1Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, D-04103 Leipzig, Germany.
    2Francis Crick Institute, London NW1 1AT, UK.
    3Institute of Archaeology, Mongolian Academy of Sciences, Ulaanbaatar 13343, Mongolia.
    4Department of Archaeology, Seoul National University, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 08826, Korea.
    5Oxford Radiocarbon Accelerator Unit, Research Laboratory for Archaeology and the History of Art, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3QY, UK.

    ↵*Corresponding author. Email: [email protected] (D.M.); [email protected] (S.P.)

    Science 30 Oct 2020:
    Vol. 370, Issue 6516, pp. 579-583
    DOI: 10.1126/science.abc1166

    DNA analyses of an early East Asian

    Ancient, anatomically modern humans interbred with the archaic hominins Neanderthals and Denisovans. However, the extent of this interbreeding and how it affects modern populations is not well understood. Massilani et al. generated genome-wide data from a 34,000-year-old female individual from the Salkhit Valley in eastern Mongolia and conducted a detailed modeling of her ancestry with regard to other Pleistocene human genomes. They found evidence for Denisovan ancestry in ancient human genomes from at least 6000 years before the Salkhit individual lived and determined that the Denisovan contribution differed from that of another ancient Asian individual, as well as from the ancient Denisovan contribution to extant Australasians. This reference point helps us to understand the early history of our species in Eurasia, especially Eastern Eurasia, for which genomic evidence remains scarce.

    Abstract

    We present analyses of the genome of a ~34,000-year-old hominin skull cap discovered in the Salkhit Valley in northeastern Mongolia. We show that this individual was a female member of a modern human population that, following the split between East and West Eurasians, experienced substantial gene flow from West Eurasians. Both she and a 40,000-year-old individual from Tianyuan outside Beijing carried genomic segments of Denisovan ancestry. These segments derive from the same Denisovan admixture event(s) that contributed to present-day mainland Asians but are distinct from the Denisovan DNA segments in present-day Papuans and Aboriginal Australians.

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    Sledge-pulling - the first motive of dog domestication?
    https://phys.org/news/2020-06-sledge...cient-dog.html

    Early samples of sledge-dogs, facilitating transport and trade of the mesolithic north:
    https://arctic.ru/analitic/20200709/953866.html

    Oldest known dog-sledge:
    https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/...nalCode=sarc20

    Comparative analyzis:
    https://www.researchgate.net/publica...ogs_in_Finland

    Ref: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paleolithic_dog
    Last edited by Boreas; 10-30-2020 at 02:37 AM.

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    Archaeogenomic Distinctiveness of the Isthmo-Colombian Area

    Archaeogenomic Distinctiveness of the Isthmo-Colombian Area
    Capodiferro et al

    Abstract
    The recently enriched genomic history of Indigenous groups in the Americas is still meagre concerning continental Central America. Here, we report ten pre-Hispanic (plus two early colonial) genomes and 84 genome-wide profiles from seven groups presently living in Panama. Our analyses reveal that pre-Hispanic demographic changes and isolation events contributed to create the extensive genetic structure currently seen in the area, which is also characterized by a distinctive Isthmo-Colombian Indigenous component. This component drives these populations on a specific variability axis and derives from the local admixture of different ancestries of northern North American origin(s). Two of these ancestries were differentially associated to Pleistocene Indigenous groups that also moved into South America leaving heterogenous footprints. An additional Pleistocene ancestry was brought by UPopI, a still unsampled population that remained restricted to the Isthmian area, expanded locally during the early Holocene, and left genomic traces up to the present.
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    Ancient Scottish DNA analysis at Reich Lab?

    Mystery of the "six-headed clan chief' and his bizarre burial unravelled by DNA
    The mystery of a clansman who was laid to rest surrounded by four skulls and the body of another man has been unlocked by new DNA analysis.
    A spokesman for the research, which was carried out by the David Reich Lab at Harvard University ...

    Who lies in the tomb of the 'Six-Headed Chief'? DNA reveals clues.

    ANCESTOR OR ADVERSARY? UNDERSTANDING THE SIX-HEADED MEDIEVAL BURIALS FROM ST COLMAN’S CHURCH IN PORTMAHOMACK | ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESEARCH IN PROGRESS
    Samples from both burials and the four skulls have been submitted to the David Reich Lab at Harvard University who are generously undertaking ancient DNA analysis for the project and the results are anticipated. Initial processing has indicated that preservation is good and that it will be possible to detect family relationships, and shared ancestry.

    --- Sorry news reports were all I found, not sure if this is the best thread in which to post?

    The archeological site:
    https://archaeologydataservice.ac.uk...mahomack_2015/
    Last edited by pmokeefe; 11-02-2020 at 11:30 PM.
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    Quote Originally Posted by rozenfeld View Post
    I just want to say how much I appreciate your consistent diligence over the years vis a vis letting us know about these abstracts. The fact that you always post them means I don't have to look out for them.

    I always get a little excited when I see your name in the Last Post box for this thread.

    Props to pmokeefe, too.

    EDIT: Whoops, meant to post this in Discussion thread. Oh, well.
    Last edited by Michalis Moriopoulos; 11-03-2020 at 02:16 AM.
    Ελευθερία ή θάνατος.

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    Parallel evidence of ancient migrations: grammars and genomes of Finno-Ugric speakers

    More rule than exception: Parallel evidence of ancient migrations in grammars and genomes of Finno-Ugric speakers
    Patricia Santos, Gloria Gonzalez-Fortes, Emiliano Trucchi, Andrea Ceolin, Guido Cordoni, Cristina Guardiano, Giuseppe Longobardi, Guido Barbujani

    Abstract
    To reconstruct aspects of human demographic history, linguistics and genetics complement each other, reciprocally suggesting testable hypotheses on population relationships and interactions. Relying on a linguistic comparative method exclusively based on syntactic data, here we focus on the complex relation of genes and languages among Finno-Ugric (FU) speakers, in comparison to their Indo-European (IE) and Altaic (AL) neighbors. Syntactic analysis supports three distinct clusters corresponding to these three Eurasian families; yet, the outliers of the FU group show linguistic convergence with their geographical neighbors. By analyzing genome-wide data in both ancient and contemporary populations, we uncovered remarkably matching patterns, with north-western FU speakers linguistically and genetically closer in parallel degrees to their IE-speaking neighbors, and eastern FU speakers to AL-speakers. Therefore, our study indicates plausible secondary convergence in the syntax of languages of different families, providing evidence that such interference effects were accompanied, and possibly caused, by recognizable processes at the population level. In particular, based on the comparison of modern and ancient genomes, our analysis identified the Pontic-Caspian steppes as the possible origin of the demographic processes that led to the expansion of the FU into Europe.
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    Female hunters of the early Americas

    Abstract:
    Sexual division of labor with females as gatherers and males as hunters is a major empirical regularity of hunter-gatherer ethnography, suggesting an ancestral behavioral pattern. We present an archeological discovery and meta-analysis that challenge the man-the-hunter hypothesis. Excavations at the Andean highland site of Wilamaya Patjxa reveal a 9000-year-old human burial (WMP6) associated with a hunting toolkit of stone projectile points and animal processing tools. Osteological, proteomic, and isotopic analyses indicate that this early hunter was a young adult female who subsisted on terrestrial plants and animals. Analysis of Late Pleistocene and Early Holocene burial practices throughout the Americas situate WMP6 as the earliest and most secure hunter burial in a sample that includes 10 other females in statistical parity with early male hunter burials. The findings are consistent with nongendered labor practices in which early hunter-gatherer females were big-game hunters.

    https://advances.sciencemag.org/content/6/45/eabd0310
    Last edited by Alain; 11-05-2020 at 11:35 AM.
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    Early medieval genetic data from Ural region evaluated in the light of archaeological evidence of ancient Hungarians

    Abstract

    The ancient Hungarians originated from the Ural region of Russia, and migrated through the Middle-Volga region and the Eastern European steppe into the Carpathian Basin during the ninth century AD. Their Homeland was probably in the southern Trans-Ural region, where the Kushnarenkovo culture was disseminated. In the Cis-Ural region Lomovatovo and Nevolino cultures are archaeologically related to ancient Hungarians. In this study we describe maternal and paternal lineages of 36 individuals from these regions and nine Hungarian Conquest period individuals from today’s Hungary, as well as shallow shotgun genome data from the Trans-Uralic Uyelgi cemetery. We point out the genetic continuity between the three chronological horizons of Uyelgi cemetery, which was a burial place of a rather endogamous population. Using phylogenetic and population genetic analyses we demonstrate the genetic connection between Trans-, Cis-Ural and the Carpathian Basin on various levels. The analyses of this new Uralic dataset fill a gap of population genetic research of Eurasia, and reshape the conclusions previously drawn from tenth to eleventh century ancient mitogenomes and Y-chromosomes from Hungary.

    https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-020-75910-z

    The NGS data were uploaded to the repository ENA (European Nucleotide Archive) under Project No. PRJEB39054.

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    A Dynamic 6,000-Year Genetic History of Eurasia’s Eastern Steppe

    Summary

    The Eastern Eurasian Steppe was home to historic empires of nomadic pastoralists, including the Xiongnu and the Mongols. However, little is known about the region’s population history. Here, we reveal its dynamic genetic history by analyzing new genome-wide data for 214 ancient individuals spanning 6,000 years. We identify a pastoralist expansion into Mongolia ca. 3000 BCE, and by the Late Bronze Age, Mongolian populations were biogeographically structured into three distinct groups, all practicing dairy pastoralism regardless of ancestry. The Xiongnu emerged from the mixing of these populations and those from surrounding regions. By comparison, the Mongols exhibit much higher eastern Eurasian ancestry, resembling present-day Mongolic-speaking populations. Our results illuminate the complex interplay between genetic, sociopolitical, and cultural changes on the Eastern Steppe.

    https://www.cell.com/cell/fulltext/S...674(20)31321-0

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  19. #3020
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    A Dynamic 6,000-Year Genetic History of Eurasia’s Eastern Steppe

    delete --- duplicate post
    Last edited by pmokeefe; 11-05-2020 at 10:02 PM.
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