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Thread: Genetic Genealogy & Ancient DNA in the News (TITLES/ABSTRACTS ONLY)

  1. #3021
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    https://www.nature.com/articles/s42003-020-01372-8


    Ancient DNA reveals monozygotic newborn twins from the Upper Palaeolithic

    Maria Teschler-Nicola, Daniel Fernandes, Marc Händel, Thomas Einwögerer, Ulrich Simon, Christine Neugebauer-Maresch, Stefan Tangl, Patrick Heimel, Toni Dobsak, Anika Retzmann, Thomas Prohaska, Johanna Irrgeher, Douglas J. Kennett, Iñigo Olalde, David Reich & Ron Pinhasi

    Communications Biology volume 3, Article number: 650 (2020) Cite this article

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    Abstract

    The Upper Palaeolithic double burial of newborns and the single burial of a ca. 3-month-old infant uncovered at the Gravettian site of Krems-Wachtberg, Austria, are of paramount importance given the rarity of immature human remains from this time. Genome-wide ancient DNA shows that the male infants of the double grave are the earliest reported case of monozygotic twins, while the single grave´s individual was their 3rd-degree male relative. We assessed the individuals´ age at death by applying histological and µCT inspection of the maxillary second incisors (i2) in conjunction with C- and N-isotope ratios and Barium (Ba) intake as biomarker for breastfeeding. The results show that the twins were full-term newborns, and that while individual 2 died at birth, individual 1 survived for about 50 days. The findings show that Gravettian mortuary behaviour also included re-opening of a grave and manipulation of its layout and content.

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    A book/dissertation on Bjarmaland (2008, printed 2016) with every source quoted and translated. A later paper (2012) from the same researcher. A paper from this year from another researcher. An older paper (2002) from another.
    Last edited by Nibelung; 11-09-2020 at 02:45 PM.

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    Genomic Insights into the Demographic History of Southern Chinese

    Genomic Insights into the Demographic History of Southern Chinese
    Xiufeng Huang, Zi-Yang Xia, Xiaoyun Bin, Guanglin He, Jianxin Guo, Chaowen Lin, Lianfei Yin, Jing Zhao, Zhuofei Ma, Fuwei Ma, Yingxiang Li, Rong Hu, Lan-Hai Wei, Chuan-Chao Wang
    Abstract
    Southern China is the birthplace of rice-cultivating agriculture, different language families, and human migrations that facilitated these cultural diffusions. The fine-scale demographic history in situ, however, remains unclear. To comprehensively cover the genetic diversity in East and Southeast Asia, we generated genome-wide SNP data from 211 present-day Southern Chinese and co-analyzed them with more than 1,200 ancient and modern genomes. We discover that the previously described Southern East Asian or Yangtze River Farmer lineage is monophyletic but not homogeneous, comprising four regionally differentiated sub-ancestries. These ancestries are respectively responsible for the transmission of Austronesian, Kra-Dai, Hmong-Mien, and Austroasiatic languages and their original homelands successively distributed from East to West in Southern China. Multiple phylogenetic analyses support that the earliest living branching among East Asian-related populations is First Americans (~27,700 BP), followed by the pre-LGM differentiation between Northern and Southern East Asians (~23,400 BP) and the pre-Neolithic split between Coastal and Inland Southern East Asians (~16,400 BP). In North China, distinct coastal and inland routes of south-to-north gene flow had established by the Holocene, and further migration and admixture formed the genetic profile of Sinitic speakers by ~4,000 BP. Four subsequent massive migrations finalized the complete genetic structure of present-day Southern Chinese. First, a southward Sinitic migration and the admixture with Kra-Dai speakers formed the Sinitic Cline. Second, a bi-directional admixture between Hmong-Mien and Kra-Dai speakers gave rise to the Hmong-Mien Cline in the interior of South China between ~2,000 and ~1,000 BP. Third, a southwestward migration of Kra-Dai speakers in recent ~2,000 years impacted the genetic profile for the majority of Mainland Southeast Asians. Finally, an admixture between Tibeto-Burman incomers and indigenous Austroasiatic speakers formed the Tibeto-Burman speakers in Southeast Asia by ~2,000 BP.

    Compe
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  7. #3024
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    This paper has now been released:

    Kinship and social organization in Copper Age Europe. A cross-disciplinary analysis of archaeology, DNA, isotopes, and anthropology from two Bell Beaker cemeteries

    Abstract
    We present a high-resolution cross-disciplinary analysis of kinship structure and social institutions in two Late Copper Age Bell Beaker culture cemeteries of South Germany containing 24 and 18 burials, of which 34 provided genetic information. By combining archaeological, anthropological, genetic and isotopic evidence we are able to document the internal kinship and residency structure of the cemeteries and the socially organizing principles of these local communities. The buried individuals represent four to six generations of two family groups, one nuclear family at the Alburg cemetery, and one seemingly more extended at Irlbach. While likely monogamous, they practiced exogamy, as six out of eight non-locals are women. Maternal genetic diversity is high with 23 different mitochondrial haplotypes from 34 individuals, whereas all males belong to one single Y-chromosome haplogroup without any detectable contribution from Y-chromosomes typical of the farmers who had been the sole inhabitants of the region hundreds of years before. This provides evidence for the society being patrilocal, perhaps as a way of protecting property among the male line, while in-marriage from many different places secured social and political networks and prevented inbreeding. We also find evidence that the communities practiced selection for which of their children (aged 0–14 years) received a proper burial, as buried juveniles were in all but one case boys, suggesting the priority of young males in the cemeteries. This is plausibly linked to the exchange of foster children as part of an expansionist kinship system which is well attested from later Indo-European-speaking cultural groups.

    https://journals.plos.org/plosone/ar...l.pone.0241278

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  9. #3025
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    Quote Originally Posted by Waldemar View Post
    Early medieval genetic data from Ural region evaluated in the light of archaeological evidence of ancient Hungarians

    Abstract

    The ancient Hungarians originated from the Ural region of Russia, and migrated through the Middle-Volga region and the Eastern European steppe into the Carpathian Basin during the ninth century AD. Their Homeland was probably in the southern Trans-Ural region, where the Kushnarenkovo culture was disseminated. In the Cis-Ural region Lomovatovo and Nevolino cultures are archaeologically related to ancient Hungarians. In this study we describe maternal and paternal lineages of 36 individuals from these regions and nine Hungarian Conquest period individuals from today’s Hungary, as well as shallow shotgun genome data from the Trans-Uralic Uyelgi cemetery. We point out the genetic continuity between the three chronological horizons of Uyelgi cemetery, which was a burial place of a rather endogamous population. Using phylogenetic and population genetic analyses we demonstrate the genetic connection between Trans-, Cis-Ural and the Carpathian Basin on various levels. The analyses of this new Uralic dataset fill a gap of population genetic research of Eurasia, and reshape the conclusions previously drawn from tenth to eleventh century ancient mitogenomes and Y-chromosomes from Hungary.

    https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-020-75910-z

    The NGS data were uploaded to the repository ENA (European Nucleotide Archive) under Project No. PRJEB39054.
    https://www.ebi.ac.uk/ena/browser/view/PRJEB39054

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    The mixed genetic origin of the first farmers of Europe (preprint)

    Abstract
    While the Neolithic expansion in Europe is well described archaeologically, the genetic origins of European first farmers and their affinities with local hunter-gatherers (HGs) remain unclear. To infer the demographic history of these populations, the genomes of 15 ancient individuals located between Western Anatolia and Southern Germany were sequenced to high quality, allowing us to perform population genomics analyses formerly restricted to modern genomes. We find that all European and Anatolian early farmers descend from the merging of a European and a Near Eastern group of HGs, possibly in the Near East, shortly after the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). Western and Southeastern European HG are shown to split during the LGM, and share signals of a very strong LGM bottleneck that drastically reduced their genetic diversity. Early Neolithic Central Anatolians seem only indirectly related to ancestors of European farmers, who probably originated in the Near East and dispersed later on from the Aegean along the Danubian corridor following a stepwise demic process with only limited (2-6%) but additive input from local HGs. Our analyses provide a time frame and resolve the genetic origins of early European farmers. They highlight the impact of Late Pleistocene climatic fluctuations that caused the fragmentation, merging and reexpansion of human populations in SW Asia and Europe, and eventually led to the world's first agricultural populations.

    https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1...3.394502v1?ct=

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    Not sure if this has aDNA as I cannot read the paper at the moment.

    Post‐last glacial maximum expansion of Y‐chromosome haplogroup C2a‐L1373 in northern Asia and its implications for the origin of Native Americans

    Abstract
    Objectives
    Subbranches of Y‐chromosome haplogroup C2a‐L1373 are founding paternal lineages in northern Asia and Native American populations. Our objective was to investigate C2a‐L1373 differentiation in northern Asia and its implications for Native American origins.

    Materials and Methods
    Sequences of rare subbranches (n = 43) and ancient individuals (n = 37) of C2a‐L1373 (including P39 and MPB373), were used to construct phylogenetic trees with age estimation by BEAST software.

    Results
    C2a‐L1373 expanded rapidly approximately 17.7,000–14.3,000 years ago (kya) after the last glacial maximum (LGM), generating numerous sublineages which became founding paternal lineages of modern northern Asian and Native American populations (C2a‐P39 and C2a‐MPB373). The divergence pattern supports possible initiation of differentiation in low latitude regions of northern Asia and northward diffusion after the LGM. There is a substantial gap between the divergence times of C2a‐MPB373 (approximately 22.4 or 17.7 kya) and C2a‐P39 (approximately 14.3 kya), indicating two possible migration waves.

    Discussion
    We discussed the decreasing time interval of “Beringian standstill” (2.5 ky or smaller) and its reduced significance. We also discussed the multiple possibilities for the peopling of the Americas: the “Long‐term Beringian standstill model,” the “Short‐term Beringian standstill model,” and the “Multiple waves of migration model.” Our results support the argument from ancient DNA analyses that the direct ancestor group of Native Americans is an admixture of “Ancient Northern Siberians” and Paleolithic communities from the Amur region, which appeared during the post‐LGM era, rather than ancient populations in greater Beringia, or an adjacent region, before the LGM.

    https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/...002/ajpa.24173

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  15. #3028
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    ^ This study does analyze existing ancient DNA - looks like pretty much all ancient C2b-L1373 samples are included - but none of it is new for this paper.

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  17. #3029
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    delete
    Last edited by Nibelung; 12-01-2020 at 08:52 PM.

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    I love looking at these older archaeology papers. Great illustrations. Thanks for sharing.

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