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Thread: Genetic Genealogy & Ancient DNA in the News (TITLES/ABSTRACTS ONLY)

  1. #3341
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    Hallstatt miners consumed blue cheese and beer during the Iron Age and retained a non-Westernized gut microbiome until the Baroque period

    We subjected human paleofeces dating from the Bronze Age to the Baroque period (18th century AD) to in-depth microscopic, metagenomic, and proteomic analyses. The paleofeces were preserved in the underground salt mines of the UNESCO World Heritage site of Hallstatt in Austria. This allowed us to reconstruct the diet of the former population and gain insights into their ancient gut microbiome composition. Our dietary survey identified bran and glumes of different cereals as some of the most prevalent plant fragments. This highly fibrous, carbohydrate-rich diet was supplemented with proteins from broad beans and occasionally with fruits, nuts, or animal food products. Due to these traditional dietary habits, all ancient miners up to the Baroque period have gut microbiome structures akin to modern non-Westernized individuals whose diets are also mainly composed of unprocessed foods and fresh fruits and vegetables. This may indicate a shift in the gut community composition of modern Westernized populations due to quite recent dietary and lifestyle changes. When we extended our microbial survey to fungi present in the paleofeces, in one of the Iron Age samples, we observed a high abundance of Penicillium roqueforti and Saccharomyces cerevisiae DNA. Genome-wide analysis indicates that both fungi were involved in food fermentation and provides the first molecular evidence for blue cheese and beer consumption in Iron Age Europe.

    https://www.cell.com/current-biology...01271-9#sec4.1

    Eurac ID Lab No MAMS 14C age [yr BP] Cal 2-sigma range with 95.4% probability Cal 2-sigma values with highest probability (%) mtDNA
    2604 46504 2525±27 791-545 cal BC 650-545 cal BC (50.4%) T2e2a
    2610 46505 2990±28 1376-1121 cal BC 1301-1121 cal BC (91.1%) X2b+226
    2611 46506 2508±25 776-544 cal BC 652-544 cal BC (65.2%) H45
    2612 46507 154±23 1667-1950 cal AD 1720-1783 cal AD (30.4%) H65a


    Data are available from the European Nucleotide Archive under accession number PRJEB44507
    Last edited by VladimirTaraskin; 10-13-2021 at 04:12 PM.

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  3. #3342
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    Biomolecular insights into North African-related ancestry, mobility and diet in eleve

    Biomolecular insights into North African-related ancestry, mobility and diet in eleventh-century Al-Andalus
    Marina Silva, Gonzalo Oteo-García, Rui Martiniano, João Guimarães, Matthew von Tersch, Ali Madour, Tarek Shoeib, Alessandro Fichera, Pierre Justeau, M. George B. Foody, Krista McGrath, Amparo Barrachina, Vicente Palomar, Katharina Dulias, Bobby Yau, Francesca Gandini, Douglas J. Clarke, Alexandra Rosa, António Brehm, Antònia Flaquer, Teresa Rito, Anna Olivieri, Alessandro Achilli, Antonio Torroni, Alberto Gómez-Carballa, Antonio Salas, Jaroslaw Bryk, Peter W. Ditchfield, Michelle Alexander, Maria Pala, Pedro A. Soares, Ceiridwen J. Edwards & Martin B. Richards
    Scientific Reports volume 11, Article number: 18121 (2021)

    Abstract
    Historical records document medieval immigration from North Africa to Iberia to create Islamic al-Andalus. Here, we present a low-coverage genome of an eleventh century CE man buried in an Islamic necropolis in Segorbe, near Valencia, Spain. Uniparental lineages indicate North African ancestry, but at the autosomal level he displays a mosaic of North African and European-like ancestries, distinct from any present-day population. Altogether, the genome-wide evidence, stable isotope results and the age of the burial indicate that his ancestry was ultimately a result of admixture between recently arrived Amazigh people (Berbers) and the population inhabiting the Peninsula prior to the Islamic conquest. We detect differences between our sample and a previously published group of contemporary individuals from Valencia, exemplifying how detailed, small-scale aDNA studies can illuminate fine-grained regional and temporal differences. His genome demonstrates how ancient DNA studies can capture portraits of past genetic variation that have been erased by later demographic shifts—in this case, most likely the seventeenth century CE expulsion of formerly Islamic communities as tolerance dissipated following the Reconquista by the Catholic kingdoms of the north.

    Discussion thread here:
    https://anthrogenica.com/showthread....u-(discussion)
    Last edited by pmokeefe; 10-14-2021 at 12:52 AM.
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  5. #3343
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    Unraveling the genetic history of Italians: a genome-wide study of Iron Age Italic populations

    Zaro Valentina (1), Vergata Chiara (1), Cannariato Costanza (1), Modi Alessandra (1), Vai Stefania (1), Pilli Elena (1), Diroma Maria Angela (1), Caramelli David (1), Lari Martina (1)
    Department of Biology, University of Florence, Florence, Italy (Italy)

    The high genetic variability of present-day Italians reflects a complex scenario of past population dynamics dating back not only to Late Paleolithic and Neolithic but also Metal Ages. Although many archaeogenetic studies have been recently carried out to investigate the peopling of Europe, only few genomic data have been reported from Italic populations so far, especially the ones belonging to the last phase of Metal Ages: the Iron Age. To outline a picture of Iron Age genetic variability within the Italian context and infer potential gene flow patterns, we collected 78 human remains from 8 Iron Age necropolises covering 5 different regions of Italy (Emilia-Romagna, Umbria, Marche, Latium and Sicily). Double stranded half-UDG libraries were produced and then shotgun sequenced on an Illumina NovaSeq6000 platform to allow for an initial screening of the samples. Raw reads were processed using the EAGER pipeline and then assessment of DNA authenticity and sex determination were performed. Preliminary population genetics tests were run on genotyped data by building a west Eurasian PCA including all the samples with at least 10.000 SNPs covered on the Affymetrix Human Origins panel. The first results highlight an affinity of the majority of the samples with previously reported Iron Age individuals from Italy, while all samples from Sicily overlap with the genetic variability observed in this area during the Bronze Age. Our aim is to deeper investigate these samples which can significantly contribute to better understand past peopling dynamics of the Italian peninsula and reconstruct modern Italians' genetic history.
    Ελευθερία ή θάνατος.

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    Actually, there's quite a lot of interesting abstracts in the pdf book below:

    https://isba9.sciencesconf.org/data/...ISBA9_2022.pdf

    I'm sure they will be posted here over the next few days. I've just gone through them and I can tell you, we're in for some great stuff coming soon.
    Ελευθερία ή θάνατος.

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    "Below is the programme for the forthcoming Neolithic Studies Group meeting on 1st November 2021 on Ancient DNA and the Neolithic, organised by Alasdair Whittle, Josh Pollard, Seren Griffiths, and Susan Greaney."

    https://neolithic.org.uk/2021/10/14/...O8PKhj7yzkv8lM

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    https://www.ebi.ac.uk/ena/browser/view/PRJEB46958

    A high-resolution picture of kinship practices in an Early Neolithic tomb

    To explore kinship practices at chambered tombs in Early Neolithic Britain, we combined archaeological and genetic analyses of 35 individuals who lived about 5,700 years ago and were entombed at Hazleton North long cairn1. Twenty-seven are part of the first extended pedigree reconstructed from ancient DNA, a five-generation family whose many interrelationships provide statistical power to document kinship practices that were invisible without direct genetic data. Patrilineal descent was key in determining who was buried in the tomb, as all 15 inter-generational transmissions were through men. The presence of women who had reproduced with lineage men and the absence of adult lineage daughters suggests virilocal burial and female exogamy. We demonstrate that one male progenitor reproduced with four women: the descendants of two of those women were buried in the same half of the tomb over all generations. This suggests that maternal sub-lineages were grouped into branches whose distinctiveness was recognized during the tomb’s construction. Four males descended from non-lineage fathers and mothers who also reproduced with lineage males, suggesting that some men adopted their reproductive partners’ children by other males into their patriline. Eight individuals were not close biological relatives of the main lineage, raising the possibility that kinship also encompassed social bonds independent of biological relatedness.

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  13. #3347
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    Quote Originally Posted by Michalis Moriopoulos View Post
    Actually, there's quite a lot of interesting abstracts in the pdf book below:

    https://isba9.sciencesconf.org/data/...ISBA9_2022.pdf

    I'm sure they will be posted here over the next few days. I've just gone through them and I can tell you, we're in for some great stuff coming soon.
    Hopefully sooner rather than later.

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    Admixture dynamics in colonial Mexico and the genetic legacy of the Manila Galleon

    Admixture dynamics in colonial Mexico and the genetic legacy of the Manila Galleon
    Juan Esteban Rodriguez-Rodriguez, View ORCID ProfileAlexander G Ioannidis, Erika Landa-Chavarria, Javier Blanco-Portillo, Consuelo D. Quinto-Cortes, Rosenda I Penaloza-Espinosa, Karla Sandoval, Andres Moreno-Estrada
    doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/2021.10.09.463780
    This article is a preprint and has not been certified by peer review
    Abstract
    Mexico has considerable population substructure due to pre-Columbian diversity and subsequent variation in admixture levels from trans-oceanic migrations, primarily from Europe and Africa, but also, to a lesser extent, from Asia. Detailed analyses exploring sub-continental structure remain limited and post-Columbian demographic dynamics within Mexico have not been inferred with genomic data. We analyze the distribution of ancestry tracts to infer the timing and number of pulses of admixture in ten regions across Mexico, observing older admixture timings in the first colonial cities and more recent timings moving outward into southern and southeastern Mexico. We characterize the specific origin of the heterogeneous Native American ancestry in Mexico: a widespread western-central Native Mesoamerican component in northern Aridoamerican states and a central-eastern Nahua contribution in Guerrero (southern Mexico) and Veracruz to its north. Yucatan shows lowland Mayan ancestry, while Sonora exhibits a unique northwestern native Mexican ancestry matching no sampled reference, each consistent with localized indigenous cultures. Finally, in Acapulco, Guerrero a notable proportion of East Asian ancestry was observed, an understudied heritage in Mexico. We identified the source of this ancestry within Southeast Asia--specifically western Indonesian and non-Negrito Filipino--and dated its arrival to approximately thirteen generations ago (1620 CE). This points to a genetic legacy from the 17th century Manila Galleon trade between the colonial Spanish Philippines and the Pacific port of Acapulco in Spanish Mexico. Although this piece of the colonial Spanish trade route from China to Europe appears in historical records, it has been largely ignored as a source of genetic ancestry in Mexico, neglected due to slavery, assimilation as "Indios" and incomplete historical records.
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    Human mitochondrial haplogroups and ancient DNA preservation across Egyptian history

    Urban Christian (1), Neukamm Judith (1), Eppenberger Patrick (1), Brändle Martin (2), Rühli Frank (1), Schuenemann Verena (1)
    1 – Institute of Evolutionary Medicine (University of Zurich Switzerland), 2 - Faculty of Biology, Philipps-Universität Marburg (Germany)

    "Egypt represents an ideal location for genetic studies on population migration and admixture due to its geographic location and rich history. However, there are only a few reliable genetic studies on ancient Egyptian samples. In a previous study, we assessed the genetic history of a single site: Abusir el-Meleq from 1388 BCE to 426 CE. We now focus on widening the geographic scope to give a general overview of the population genetic background, focusing on mitochondrial haplogroups present among the whole Egyptian Nile River Valley. We collected 81 tooth, hair, bone, and soft tissue samples from 14 mummies and 17 skeletal remains. The samples span approximately 4000 years of Egyptian history and originate from six different excavation sites covering the whole length of the Egyptian Nile River Valley. NGS based ancient DNA 8 were applied to reconstruct 18 high-quality mitochondrial genomes from 10 different individuals. The determined mitochondrial haplogroups match the results from our Abusir el-Meleq study. Our results indicate very low rates of modern DNA contamination independent of the tissue type. Although authentic ancient DNA was recovered from different tissues, a reliable recovery was best achieved using teeth or petrous bone material. Moreover, the rate for successful ancient DNA retrieval between Egyptian mummies and skeletal remains did not differ significantly. Our study provides preliminary insights into population history across different regions and compares tissue-specific DNA preservation for mummies and skeletal remains from the Egyptian Nile River Valley."

    Abstract Book, p.126 – ISBA9, 9th International Symposium on Biomolecular Archaeology, June 1st – 4th 2021, Toulouse, France

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  19. #3350
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    Genomic ancestry during Antiquity in France
    Mendisco Fanny (1), De Belvalet Harmony (2), Gleize Yves (3), Bel Valerie (3), Thiol Sandrine (3), Oudry-Braillon Sophie (3), Grimaud Julie (3), Rochette Marie
    (3), Pinard Estelle (3), Chenal Fanny (3), Barrand-Emam Hélène (4), Hernandez Jérome (3), Pruvost Mélanie (5)
    1 - De la Préhistoire à l’Actuel : Culture, Environnement et Anthropologie (France), 2- De la Préhistoire à l'Actuel : Culture, Environnement et Anthropologie (PACEA),
    Pessac, (France), 3 - INRAP (France), 4 - Antea Archéologie (France), 5 - De la Préhistoire à l'Actuel : Culture, Environnement et Anthropologie (France)

    The aim of the ANCESTRA project (ANR Ancestra, dir. M.Pruvost) is to reconstruct the peopling of the territory of present-day France by characterizing the different waves of human populations since the Neolithic and until the beginning of the MiddleAges. Following the publication of data concerning the Neolithic and Bronze Age, this part of the project focuses more particularly on the unexplored period of Antiquity. Thanks to a close collaboration with the archaeologists involved in the project, we report here genome wide data from about a hundred samples from South, North and East of France. Antiquity, like most periods of transition, could be marked by new social rules, new networks of exchange as well as the arrival of new groups of migrants. Crossing archaeological, anthropological and genomic data, we investigate demographic processes and social structures during the Ancient Era, marked, among other things, by the expansion of the Roman Empire across Europe.
    Despite an overall diversity for this Antiquity period which echoes that currently observed in the France territory, we were able to identify a subtle structure of this genetic diversity according geographic regions. We also could identify that the local population were affected by gene flow from eastern Mediterranean region but the admixture with Roman individuals remains sporadic. Finally, these genomic data, confronted with more local archaeological issues, raise new questions about cultural continuities across France, and allow us to discuss the different components of the society of Antiquity.
    page103
    https://isba9.sciencesconf.org/data/...ISBA9_2022.pdf
    Last edited by LesPoilus; 10-19-2021 at 09:04 AM.

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