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Thread: Genetic Genealogy & Ancient DNA in the News (TITLES/ABSTRACTS ONLY)

  1. #2921
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    Titles and Abstracts online!!!!! I am so tired of checking this thread for articles and I just see more useless comments!!!
    So I am not a hypocrite I have a new article. Re-evaluating “old” archaeological bones by using modern techniques: an example of a Middle Neolithic skeleton from Smilčić, Croatia

    link is https://www.bib.irb.hr/1040845
    Maternal Uncle y-line= F0R1b1-L21

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  3. #2922
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    Latest trends in archaeogenetic research of west Eurasians
    Iñigo Olalde Cosimo Posth

    During the past ten years, archaeogenetic research has exponentially grown to study the genetic history of human populations, using genome-wide data from large numbers of ancient individuals. Of the entire globe, Europe and the Near East are the regions where ancient DNA data is by far most abundant with over 2500 genomes published at present. In this review, we focus on archaeological contexts that have received less attention in the literature, specifically those associated with west Eurasian hunter-gatherers as well as populations from the Iron Age and later historical periods. In addition, we emphasize a recent shift from continent-wide to regional and even site-specific studies, which is starting to provide novel insights into sociocultural aspects of past societies.

    https://www.sciencedirect.com/scienc...1?dgcid=author

    Discuss on other thread.

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  5. #2923
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    https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-020-67445-0

    Article
    Open Access
    Published: 01 July 2020

    The mitogenome portrait of Umbria in Central Italy as depicted by contemporary inhabitants and pre-Roman remains

    Alessandra Modi, Hovirag Lancioni, Irene Cardinali, Marco R. Capodiferro, Nicola Rambaldi Migliore, Abir Hussein, Christina Strobl, Martin Bodner, Lisa Schnaller, Catarina Xavier, Ermanno Rizzi, Laura Bonomi Ponzi, Stefania Vai, Alessandro Raveane, Bruno Cavadas, Ornella Semino, Antonio Torroni, Anna Olivieri, Martina Lari, Luisa Pereira, Walther Parson, David Caramelli & Alessandro Achilli

    Scientific Reports volume 10, Article number: 10700 (2020) Cite this article

    Metrics details

    Abstract

    Umbria is located in Central Italy and took the name from its ancient inhabitants, the Umbri, whose origins are still debated. Here, we investigated the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation of 545 present-day Umbrians (with 198 entire mitogenomes) and 28 pre-Roman individuals (obtaining 19 ancient mtDNAs) excavated from the necropolis of Plestia. We found a rather homogeneous distribution of western Eurasian lineages across the region, with few notable exceptions. Contemporary inhabitants of the eastern part, delimited by the Tiber River and the Apennine Mountains, manifest a peculiar mitochondrial proximity to central-eastern Europeans, mainly due to haplogroups U4 and U5a, and an overrepresentation of J (30%) similar to the pre-Roman remains, also excavated in East Umbria. Local genetic continuities are further attested to by six terminal branches (H1e1, J1c3, J2b1, U2e2a, U8b1b1 and K1a4a) shared between ancient and modern mitogenomes. Eventually, we identified multiple inputs from various population sources that likely shaped the mitochondrial gene pool of ancient Umbri over time, since early Neolithic, including gene flows with central-eastern Europe. This diachronic mtDNA portrait of Umbria fits well with the genome-wide population structure identified on the entire peninsula and with historical sources that list the Umbri among the most ancient Italic populations.

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    I don't even ...

    https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1...07.03.186296v1

    The major genetic risk factor for severe COVID-19 is inherited from Neandertals

    Hugo Zeberg, Svante Paabo

    doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.07.03.186296

    Abstract

    A recent genetic association study (Ellinghaus et al. 2020) identified a gene cluster on chromosome 3 as a risk locus for respiratory failure in SARS-CoV-2. Recent data comprising 3,199 hospitalized COVID-19 patients and controls reproduce this and find that it is the major genetic risk factor for severe SARS-CoV-2 infection and hospitalization (COVID-19 Host Genetics Initiative). Here, we show that the risk is conferred by a genomic segment of ~50 kb that is inherited from Neandertals and occurs at a frequency of ~30% in south Asia and ~8% in Europe.

    Competing Interest Statement

    The authors have declared no competing interest.

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  9. #2925
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    Genetic ancestry changes in Stone to Bronze Age transition in the East European plain
    https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1...07.02.184507v1

    doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.07.02.184507

    Abstract

    Transition from the Stone to the Bronze Age in Central and Western Europe was a period of major population movements originating from the Ponto-Caspian Steppe. Here, we report new genome-wide sequence data from 28 individuals from the territory north of this source area - from the under-studied Western part of present-day Russia, including Stone Age hunter-gatherers (10,800-4,250 cal BC) and Bronze Age farmers from the Corded Ware complex called Fatyanovo Culture (2,900-2,050 cal BC). We show that Eastern hunter-gatherer ancestry was present in Northwestern Russia already from around 10,000 BC. Furthermore, we see a clear change in ancestry with the arrival of farming - the Fatyanovo Culture individuals were genetically similar to other Corded Ware cultures, carrying a mixture of Steppe and European early farmer ancestry and thus likely originating from a fast migration towards the northeast from somewhere in the vicinity of modern-day Ukraine, which is the closest area where these ancestries coexisted from around 3,000 BC.
    Competing Interest Statement

    The authors have declared no competing interest.

    Peopling of Tibet Plateau and multiple waves of admixture of Tibetans inferred from both modern and ancient genome-wide data

    https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1...07.03.185884v1

    doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.07.03.185884

    Abstract

    Archeologically attested human occupation on the Tibet Plateau (TP) can be traced back to 160 thousand years ago (kya, Xiahe) via archaic people and 30~40 kya via anatomically modern human in Nwya Devu. However, the past human movements and peopling of the TP keep in its infancy in the modern/ancient DNA studies. Here, we performed the first modern/ancient genomic meta-analysis among 3,017 Paleolithic to present-day eastern Eurasian genomes (2,444 modern individuals from 183 populations (including 98 U-Tsang/Ando/Kham Tibetans) and 573 ancients (including 161 Chinese ancients first meta-analyzed here)). Closer genetic connection between ancient-modern highland Tibetans and lowland island/coastal Neolithic northern East Asians was identified, reflecting the main ancestry of high-altitude Tibeto-Burman speakers originated from the ancestors of Houli/Yangshao/Longshan ancients in the middle and lower Yellow River basin, consistent with the common North-China origin of Sino-Tibetan language and dispersal pattern of millet farmers. Although the shared common northern East Asian lineage between Tibetans and lowland East Asians, we still identified genetic differentiation between Highlanders and lowland northern East Asians, the former harboring more deeply diverged Hoabinhian/Onge ancestry and the latter possessing more modern Neolithic southern East Asian and Siberian ancestry, which suggested the co-existence of Paleolithic and Neolithic ancestries in modern and Neolithic East Asian Highlanders. Tibetans from U-Tsang/Ando/Kham Tibetan regions showed strong population stratifications consistent with their cultural backgrounds and geographic terrains (showed as barriers for human movements): stronger Chokhopani affinity in U-Tsang Tibetans, more western Eurasian ancestry in Ando and greater Neolithic southern East Asian ancestry in Kham Tibetan. Modern combined ancient genomes documented multiple waves of human migrations in TP past: the first layer of local Hunter-Gatherer mixed with Qijia Farmer arose the Chokhopani-associated Proto-Tibetan-Burman, admixture with the additional genetic materials from the western Eurasian steppe, Yellow River and Yangtze River respectively gave rise to modern Ando, U-Tsang and Kham Tibetans.
    Competing Interest Statement

    The authors have declared no competing interest.
    ἦθος ἀνθρώπῳ δαίμων

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    Severe bottleneck among Asian hunter-gatherers following the invention of agriculture

    https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1....170308v1.full

    Abstract

    The invention of agriculture (IOA) by anatomically modern humans (AMH) around 10,000 years before present (ybp) is known to have led to an increase in AMH’s carrying capacity and hence its population size. Reconstruction of historical demography using high coverage (~30X) whole genome sequences (WGS) from >700 individuals from different South Asian (SAS) and Southeast Asian (SEA) populations reveals that although several present day populous groups did indeed experience a positive Neolithic Demographic Transition (NDT), most hunter-gatherers (HGs) experienced a demographic decrease. Differential fertility between HGs and non-HGs, exposure of HGs to novel pathogens from non-HGs could have resulted in such contrasting patterns. However, we think the most parsimonious explanation of the drastic decrease in population size of HGs is their displacement/enslavement by non-HGs.



    Inferring ancient DNA from the current DNA.

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  13. #2927
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    Determination of the phylogenetic origins of the Árpád Dynasty based on Y chromosome sequencing of Béla the Third

    Abstract

    We set out to identify the origins of the Árpád Dynasty based on genome sequencing of DNA derived from the skeletal remains of Hungarian King Béla III (1172–1196) and eight additional individuals (six males, two females) originally interred at the Royal Basilica of Székesfehérvár. Y-chromosome analysis established that two individuals, Béla III and HU52 assign to haplogroups R-Z2125 whose distribution centres near South Central Asia with subsidiary expansions in the regions of modern Iran, the Volga Ural region and the Caucasus. Out of a cohort of 4340 individuals from these geographic areas, we acquired whole-genome data from 208 individuals derived for the R-Z2123 haplogroup. From these data we have established that the closest living kin of the Árpád Dynasty are R-SUR51 derived modern day Bashkirs predominantly from the Burzyansky and Abzelilovsky districts of Bashkortostan in the Russian Federation. Our analysis also reveals the existence of SNPs defining a novel Árpád Dynasty specific haplogroup R-ARP. Framed within the context of a high resolution R-Z2123 phylogeny, the ancestry of the first Hungarian royal dynasty traces to the region centering near Northern Afghanistan about 4500 years ago and identifies the Bashkirs as their closest kin, with a separation date between the two populations at the beginning of the first millennium CE.

    https://www.nature.com/articles/s41431-020-0683-z

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  15. #2928
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    I haven’t seen this one posted so far:

    Published: 06 July 2020

    Climate shaped how Neolithic farmers and European hunter-gatherers interacted after a major slowdown from 6,100 BCE to 4,500 BCE.

    Lia Betti, Robert M. Beyer, Eppie R. Jones, Anders Eriksson, Francesca Tassi, Veronika Siska, Michela Leonardi, Pierpaolo Maisano Delser, Lily K. Bentley, Philip R. Nigst, Jay T. Stock, Ron Pinhasi & Andre Manica.

    The Neolithic transition in Europe was driven by the rapid dispersal of Near Eastern farmers who, over a period of 3,500 years, brought food production to the furthest corners of the continent. However, this wave of expansion was far from homogeneous, and climatic factors may have driven a marked slowdown observed at higher latitudes. Here, we test this hypothesis by assembling a large database of archaeological dates of first arrival of farming to quantify the expansion dynamics. We identify four axes of expansion and observe a slowdown along three axes when crossing the same climatic threshold. This threshold reflects the quality of the growing season, suggesting that Near Eastern crops might have struggled under more challenging climatic conditions. This same threshold also predicts the mixing of farmers and hunter-gatherers as estimated from ancient DNA, suggesting that unreliable yields in these regions might have favoured the contact between the two groups.

    https://www.nature.com/articles/s41562-020-0897-7


    Edit: A map from the paper can be found courtesy of:

    https://www.gnxp.com/WordPress/2020/...ms-and-cereal/
    Last edited by JMcB; 07-08-2020 at 05:56 PM.
    Paper Trail: 43.8% English, 29.7% Scottish, 12.5% Irish, 6.25% German, 6.25% Italian & 1.5% French. Or: 86% British Isles, 6.25% German, 6.25% Italian & 1.5% French.
    LDNA(c): 86.3% British Isles (48.6% English, 37.7% Scottish & Irish), 7.8% NW Germanic, 5.9% Europe South (Aegian 3.4%, Tuscany 1.3%, Sardinia 1.1%)
    BigY 700: I1-Z140 >I-F2642 >Y1966 >Y3649 >A13241 >Y3647 >A13248 (circa 620 AD) >A13242/YSEQ (circa 765 AD) >FT80854 (circa 1650 AD).

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  17. #2929
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    Population genomics on the origin of lactase persistence in Europe and South Asia

    Yoko Satta, Naoyuki Takahata

    Abstract

    The C to T mutation at rs4988235 located upstream of the lactase (LCT) gene is the primary determinant for lactase persistence (LP) that is prevalent among Europeans and South Asians. Here, we review evolutionary studies of this mutation based on ancient and present-day human genomes with the following concluding remarks: the mutation arose in the Pontic Steppe somewhere between 23,000 and 5000 years ago, emigrated into Europe and South Asia in the Bronze Age via the expansion of the Steppe ancestry, and experienced local hard sweeps with their delayed onsets occurring in the last 3600 years. We also argue that the G to A mutation at rs182549 arose earlier than 23,000 years ago, the intermediate CA haplotype ancestral to the LP-related TA haplotype is still represented by samples from Tuscans, admixed Americans and South Asians, and the great majority of G to A mutated descendants have hitchhiked since the C to T mutation was favored by local selection.

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    Not sure if this was already posted:

    Native American gene flow into Polynesia predating Easter Island settlement

    Abstract

    The possibility of voyaging contact between prehistoric Polynesian and Native American populations has long intrigued researchers. Proponents have pointed to the existence of New World crops, such as the sweet potato and bottle gourd, in the Polynesian archaeological record, but nowhere else outside the pre-Columbian Americas1,2,3,4,5,6, while critics have argued that these botanical dispersals need not have been human mediated7. The Norwegian explorer Thor Heyerdahl controversially suggested that prehistoric South American populations had an important role in the settlement of east Polynesia and particularly of Easter Island (Rapa Nui)2. Several limited molecular genetic studies have reached opposing conclusions, and the possibility continues to be as hotly contested today as it was when first suggested8,9,10,11,12. Here we analyse genome-wide variation in individuals from islands across Polynesia for signs of Native American admixture, analysing 807 individuals from 17 island populations and 15 Pacific coast Native American groups. We find conclusive evidence for prehistoric contact of Polynesian individuals with Native American individuals (around AD 1200) contemporaneous with the settlement of remote Oceania13,14,15. Our analyses suggest strongly that a single contact event occurred in eastern Polynesia, before the settlement of Rapa Nui, between Polynesian individuals and a Native American group most closely related to the indigenous inhabitants of present-day Colombia.

    https://www.nature.com/articles/s41586-020-2487-2

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