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Thread: Genetic Genealogy and Ancient DNA in the News

  1. #2301
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  3. #2302
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    https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/...002/ajpa.23746

    Molecular analysis of an ancient Thule population at Nuvuk, Point Barrow, Alaska

    Justin Tackney
    Anne M. Jensen
    Caroline Kisielinski
    Dennis H. O'Rourke

    First published: 09 January 2019

    https://doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.23746

    Abstract

    Objectives

    The North American archaeological record supports a Holocene origin of Arctic Indigenous peoples. Although the Paleo‐Inuit were present for millennia, archaeological and genetic studies suggest that modern peoples descend from a second, more recent tradition known as the Neo‐Inuit. Origins of the Neo‐Inuit and their relations to the earlier and later Indigenous peoples are an area of active study. Here, we genetically analyze the maternal lineages present at Nuvuk, once the northernmost community in Alaska and located in a region identified as a possible origin point of the Neo‐Inuit Thule. The cemetery at Nuvuk contains human remains representing a nearly one thousand year uninterrupted occupation from early Thule to post‐contact Ińupiat.

    Materials and methods

    We selected 44 individuals from Nuvuk with calibrated dates between 981 AD and 1885 AD for molecular analysis. We amplified and sequenced the hypervariable segment I of the mitogenome. We compared the Nuvuk data with previously published sequences from 68 modern and ancient communities from across Asia and North America. Phylogeographic analyses suggest possible scenarios of Holocene Arctic and sub‐Arctic population movements.

    Results

    We successfully retrieved sequence data from 39 individuals. Haplogroup frequencies in Nuvuk were typed as 66.7% A2b1, 25.6% A2a, and 7.7% D4b1a2a1a. These results suggest that the population at Nuvuk was closest to the ancient Thule and modern Inuit of Canada, and to the Siberian Naukan people. We confirm that haplogroups A2a, A2b1, D2a, and D4b1a2a1a appear at high frequency in Arctic and sub‐Arctic populations of North America and Chukotka. Sister clades D2b and D4b1a2a1b are present in Asian and Eastern European populations.

    Discussion

    The ancient mitochondrial sequences from Nuvuk confirm the link between the North Slope and the Thule who later spread east, and the maternal discontinuity between the Neo‐Inuit and Paleo‐Inuit. We suggest haplogroups A2a, A2b, and D4b1a2a1a are linked to the ancestors of the Thule in eastern Beringia, whereas the D2 and D4b1a2a1 clades appear to have Asian Holocene origins. Further Siberian and Alaskan genomes are necessary to clarify these population migrations beyond a simple two‐wave scenario of Neo‐Inuit and Paleo‐Inuit.

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  5. #2303
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    https://link.springer.com/article/10...20-018-00771-7

    Ancient mitochondrial DNA and population dynamics in postclassic Central Mexico: Tlatelolco (ad 1325–1520) and Cholula (ad 900–1350)

    Ana Y. Morales-Arce, Geoffrey McCafferty, Jessica Hand, Norma Schmill, Krista McGrath, Camilla Speller

    Original Paper
    First Online: 08 January 2019

    Abstract

    The past composition and genetic diversity of populations from Central Mexico during the Postclassic period (ad 900–1520) are still little understood. Two of the largest centres of ancient groups, Tlatelolco and Cholula, declined after European conquest and questions about their relationships with other Central Mexican cities and ritual activities have been debated. Tlatelolco was a Mexica group that practiced the Quetzalcoatl cult and human sacrifice, including the sacrifice of children, while Cholula was considered the main pilgrimage centre and multiethnic city during the Postclassic. This study analysed the mitochondrial DNA control region of 28 human skeletal samples to estimate the genetic affinities of individuals buried at Tlatelolco and Cholula. Amelogenin analysis and whole genome sequencing (WGS) were also applied to determine the sex of the 15 Tlatelolco subadults from sacrificial contexts. Networks, PCoA and Nei genetic distances were calculated to compare Tlatelolco and Cholula haplotypes with available ancient haplotype data from Mesoamerican groups and the two borderland areas, Paquimé and Greater Nicoya. Mitochondrial haplogroups were characterized for 11 of the 15 samples from Tlatelolco (73%) and 12 samples out of 13 from Cholula (92%), revealing the presence of four distinct Amerindian mitochondrial lineages at Tlateloloco, A (n = 6; 55%), B (n = 2; 18%), C (n = 1; 9%) and D (n = 2; 10%); and three lineages in Cholula, A (n = 5; 42%), B (n = 5; 42%) and C (n = 2; 16%). Statistical analysis of the haplotypes, haplogroup frequencies and Nei genetic distances showed close affinity of Tlatelolco’s subadults with ancient Mexica (Aztecs) and closer affinities between Cholula and the Xaltocan of the Basin of Mexico. Sex determination of Tlatelolco subadult sacrifice victims revealed that 83% were females, in contrast to previous studies of subadult sacrificial patterns at the site. Together, these results demonstrate the multi-ethnic nature of religious and economic centres in Postclassic Central Mexico.

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  7. #2304
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    Quote Originally Posted by Eterne View Post
    https://www.biorxiv.org/content/early/2018/07/11/367201 - A genetic perspective on Longobard-Era migrations

    Abstract

    From the first century AD, Europe has been interested by population movements, commonly known as Barbarian migrations. Among these processes, the one involving the Longobard culture interested a vast region, but its dynamics and demographic impact remains largely unknown. Here we report 87 new complete mitochondrial sequences coming from nine early-medieval cemeteries located along the area interested by the Longobard migration (Czech Republic, Hungary and Italy). From the same locations, we sampled necropolises characterized by cultural markers associated with the Longobard culture (LC) and coeval burials where no such markers were found (NLC). Population genetics analysis and ABC modeling highlighted a similarity between LC individuals, as reflected by a certain degree of genetic continuity between these groups, that reached 70% among Hungary and Italy. Models postulating a contact between LC and NLC communities received also high support, indicating a complex dynamics of admixture in medieval Europe.
    The paper is officially published:

    https://www.nature.com/articles/s41431-018-0319-8

    A genetic perspective on Longobard-Era migrations

    Stefania Vai, Andrea Brunelli, Alessandra Modi, Francesca Tassi, Chiara Vergata, Elena Pilli, Martina Lari, Roberta Rosa Susca, Caterina Giostra, Luisella Pejrani Baricco, Elena Bedini, István Koncz, Tivadar Vida, Balázs Gusztáv Mende, Daniel Winger, Zuzana Loskotová, Krishna Veeramah, Patrick Geary, Guido Barbujani, David Caramelli & Silvia Ghirotto

    European Journal of Human Genetics (2019) | Download Citation

    Abstract

    From the first century AD, Europe has been interested by population movements, commonly known as Barbarian migrations. Among these processes, the one involving the Longobard culture interested a vast region, but its dynamics and demographic impact remains largely unknown. Here we report 87 new complete mitochondrial sequences coming from nine early-medieval cemeteries located along the area interested by the Longobard migration (Czech Republic, Hungary and Italy). From the same areas, we sampled necropoleis characterized by cultural markers associated with the Longobard culture (LC) and coeval burials where no such markers were found, or with a chronology slightly preceding the presumed arrival of the Longobards in that region (NLC). Population genetics analysis and demographic modeling highlighted a similarity between LC individuals, as reflected by the sharing of quite rare haplogroups and by the degree of genetic resemblance between Hungarian and Italian LC necropoleis estimated via a Bayesian approach, ABC. The demographic model receiving the strongest statistical support also postulates a contact between LC and NLC communities, thus indicating a complex dynamics of admixture in medieval Europe.

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