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Thread: Genetic characterization of the Copper and Bronze age populations of Iberia.

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    Genetic characterization of the Copper and Bronze age populations of Iberia.

    This is pretty exciting for people like me. So I think it deserves its own thread. Here is a PhD thesis with a massive amount of pre-Bell Beaker DNA, Bell Beaker, Early Bronze Age and Cogotas-1.

    Caracterización genética de las poblaciones de las Edades del Cobre y del Bronce de la submeseta norte de la Península Ibérica

    Quote Originally Posted by Sara Palomo Díez 2015
    The Chronological period since the beginning of the Chalcolithic to the end of the Bronze Age on the Iberian North Sub-plateau, involves interesting social and cultural phenomena, like the appearanceof the Bell Beaker and later the Cogotas I culture. Up to date the DNA studies performed about skeletal remains from the Iberian North Sub-plateau of these periods are almost non-existent. Only, some data about the Mirador Cave, located in Atapuerca (Burgos, Spain) (Gómez-Sánchez et al., 2014) has been published. However, the DNA analysis in human skeletal ancient remains could provide valuable information and they are a great resource to prove several hypothesis formulated by other disciplines, like archaeology or anthropology.

    Consequently, this thesis try to open up the genetic characterization of the human population, that lived on the North Sub-plateau between 5000 and 3000 years ago. Nevertheless, it was considered interesting to go in depth also in many methodology aspects. In this way, four main points have been analyzed along this thesis.

    The first point refers to the methodological aspects. Despite the great potential of the aDNA technical, there are several limitations that we must take into account; all of them derived from the low DNA content of ancient samples and it bad preservation stage. Additionally the aDNA should be affected by some different phenomena: DNA fragmentation, molecular damage and the infiltration of some kind of substances like PCR inhibitors and DNA exogenous. In order to analyze this failure factors, along this work, it was evaluated the different macroscopic characteristics of the samples according to the obtained results. Other methodological questions that has been taken into account were the evaluation of three different extraction DNA protocols, included one non-destructive extraction DNA protocol. Furthermore, regarding to the STR analysis, different criteria have been proposed in order to establish consensus STR profiles from partial STR profiles. This has been done taking into consideration which one in the most appropriate criterion and the one that provide the maximum quantity of information and the minimum
    probability of error.

    The second main point, and maybe the largest one, analyses population and cultural questions that will be solved through the mtDNA analysis. Along this second point, it is intended to shed light on questions like if the different material cultures (Bell Beaker and Cogotas I) are associated with the arrival of new human populations who arrived to the region and established closed relationship with the endogenous populations or on the other hand if it could be the result of the transmission of knowledge without human population mixing. Other important question is the following: are the material cultures related to women populations? It is possible to answer this question through the mtDNA analysis. In order to solve all these questions, 94 individuals of 28 different archaeological sites of the Iberian North Subplateau have been analyzed. These individuals were from four different Chrono-cultural periods (Pre Bell Beaker period, Bell Beaker period, Protocogotas I culture and Cogotas I culture) since the end of the Chalcolithic up to the Bronze Age. Additionally, it was selected also two samples from a Soto Formative individual (Bronze Age Ending). All these populations were compared also with other Iberian previous and subsequent populations over the time. Through the results of these analysis, it is possible to conclude that the Bell Beaker culture is associated with the arrival of a new human population genetically different. The arrival of the new population took place before the complete development of the material culture, during the Pre-Bell Beaker Period. Also, it is possible to confirm that the Cogotas I culture is also precede by another human population arrival during the Protocogotas I period. As result, both cases, Bell Beaker and Cogotas I cultures, seem to be associated with important changes in the genetic composition of the human population. Moreover, it is possible to confirm the closed relation between the woman population movements and the material cultural changes.

    The third point of interest of this thesis is focused on the establishment of kinship analysis between individuals buried together in multiple or collective burials. This kind of burials are assumed in many times as familiar burials. This part of the research have been performed in order to prove or discard the hypothesis about the familiar relationship between them. In order to achieve this target, forensic tools (miniSTRs amplification kits) have been used. It was possible to obtain results from 6 collective or multiple burials. The results achieved showed different circumstances in the analysis of each one. In most of the cases analyzed, no complete familiar nucleus have been found in this kind of burials. However, some closed kinship have been identified, as the case of a mother and her child (fetus or new-born) in Los Tolmos (Caracena, Soria).

    Finally, the last point, but not the less important, is focused on the molecular diagnosis of sex. The sex determination is an essential issue of any archaeological study. However, many times the skeletal remains are not enough well preserved to guarantee the anthropological sex determination. Furthermore, in the case of infant individuals, it is even more difficult to determine the sex by classic anthropological protocols. Other example of a critical situation to determine sex, are the cases when the anthropologist has to face with female remains with masculine traits or male remains with feminine traits. Due to all these possible situations, the sex determination through molecular methods is an important field of study. The sex of the individuals is an essential data for the paleodemography reconstruction and also in personal identification studies. Concretely, the molecular diagnosis of the sex has been carried out through the amplification of amelogenine gen by miniSTRs amplification kits and by RT-PCR (Real Time PCR). Finally, a consensus result between the different methods have been established and the efficiency of each one has been evaluated.

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    Figure-39



    Location of the samples. For the nonSpanish speakers:

    Precampaniforme (PCamp)==Pre-Bell Beaker

    Campaniforme(Camp)== Bell Beaker

    Bronce Antiguo(BA) == Early Bronze Age

    ProtoCogotas(PCOG) == ProtoCogotas

    Cogotas-I(COG) == Cogotas-I
    Last edited by jeanL; 02-12-2017 at 03:01 AM.

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    Your map link doesn't work
    So the conclusions of this study are at odds with Roth one which argues there was no change in Pop during th copper age ?
    Last edited by Gravetto-Danubian; 02-12-2017 at 03:55 AM.

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    Table-60 with the Haplogroups results:


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    I've broken down Table-60 by time period so it's a little easier to analyze:

    Pre-Bell Beaker



    Bell-Beaker



    Early Bronze Age



    Pre-Cogotas




    Cogotas-1 and San Pelayo


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    Unfortunately no Y-DNA

    Quote Originally Posted by Sandra Palomo Díez 2015
    Cromosoma Y: En la presente tesis no se ha realizado análisis de cromosoma Y con fines filogenéticos; sin embargo se ha empleado en algunos casos de parentesco cercano para solventar dudas acerca de alguna relación padre-hijo varón. Dado que el cromosoma Y incluye marcadores con elevada tasa mutacional (STRs), su estudio permite establecer relaciones de parentesco a lo largo de la línea paterna asociadas a probabilidades mucho más elevadas en el ADN mitocondrial. Sin embargo en este caso, los resultados del análisis de cromosoma Y han sido nulos, por lo que no se incluyen en los resultados de esta tesis.

    [...]

    Chromosome Y: In the present thesis, Y chromosome analysis for phylogenetic purposes has not been performed; however it has been used in some cases of close kinship to resolve doubts about some male parent-child relationship. Since the Y chromosome includes markers with high mutation rate (STRs), its study allows to establish relations of kinship along the line Paternal diseases associated with much higher probabilities in mitochondrial DNA. However, in in this case, the results of the Y chromosome analysis have been null, so they are not included in the results of this thesis.

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    Quote Originally Posted by Gravetto-Danubian View Post
    Your map link doesn't work
    So the conclusions of this study are at odds with Roth one which argues there was no change in Pop during th copper age ?
    Apparently. I'm going to read it carefully. 94 samples, haplogroups in pages 220, 221. I'm willing to change my mind with new evidence, but it won't end until we have autosomal and YDNA. In different parts of the Iberian Peninsula there might have been slightly different populations. This study focuses in the Northern Meseta (interior NW).

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    It really seems that mtDNA didn't change a lot: I see the same haplogroups in all time periods, the only difference is in percentages.

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    Quote Originally Posted by jeanL View Post
    This is pretty exciting for people like me. So I think it deserves its own thread. Here is a PhD thesis with a massive amount of pre-Bell Beaker DNA, Bell Beaker, Early Bronze Age and Cogotas-1.

    Caracterización genética de las poblaciones de las Edades del Cobre y del Bronce de la submeseta norte de la Península Ibérica
    A copy of this is in my library and was in the Vault here until somebody wiped the latter. So I suppose that it has been discussed before here, though I can't immediately see where.

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    Quote Originally Posted by Romilius View Post
    It really seems that mtDNA didn't change a lot: I see the same haplogroups in all time periods, the only difference is in percentages.
    I can't get excited by this type of study.

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